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Courtella_wardi_female and male

World Chalcidoidea

(Life: Kingdom: Metazoa (animals); Phylum: Arthropoda; Class: Hexapoda; Order: Hymenoptera)




Baeomorphidae (previously Rotoitidae) (Australasian [ New Zealand], Neotropical [Chile])

Boucekiidae (Australasian, Neotropical)

Calesidae (Australasian, Neotropical, Oriental, Palaearctic. Introduced Afrotropical, Nearctic)

Ceidae (Afrotropical, Nearctic, Neotropical, Palaearctic)


Chalcedectidae (Afrotropical, Australasian, Nearctic, Neotropical)














Eutrichosomatidae (Australasian, Nearctic, Neotropical)


Hetreulophidae (Australasian)

Heydeniidae (Afrotropical, Australasian, Oriental, Palaearctic)

Idioporidae (Nearctic, Neotropical)



Macromesidae (worldwide, except for Neotropical)




Moranilidae (Afrotropical, Australasian, Nearctic, Oriental)



Neodiparidae (Afrotropical, Palaearctic)



Pelecinellidae (Australasian, Nearctic, Neotropical, Oriental)











  incertae sedis taxa in Chalcidoidea not placed to family:
Asaphesinae: Asaphes Walker, Coriotela† Burks & Heraty, Hyperimerus Girault
Austrosystasinae: Austrosystasis Girault

Ditropinotellinae: Ditropinotella Girault

Eopelma Gibson

Enoggerinae: Ausasaphes Bouček, Enoggera Girault

Keryinae: Kerya Bouček

Louriciinae: Callimomoides Girault

Micradelinae: Micradelus Walker

Neapterolelapinae: Neapterolelaps Girault, Nosodipara Bouček, Pseudoceraphron Dodd

Parasaphodinae: Parasaphodes Schulz


Rivasia Askew & Nieves-Aldrey

Storeyinae: Storeya Bouček


Genera inquirenda unplaced to family:

Elachertoidea Girault,

Eubeckerella Narendran,

Glyphotoma Cameron,

Promerisus Kieffer,

Pyramidophoriella Hedqvist,

Selimnus Walker,

Sennia De Stefani,

Tripteromalus Kieffer

Distribution Worldwide.
Biology Parasitoids of insect (12 Orders), spider (Aranaea), mite (Acari) or nematode (Family Anguinidae) larvae (occasionally adults); or phytophagous: gall formers, seed eaters or inquilines in galls of other species.


Aguiar AP, Deans AR, Engel MS, Forshage M, Huber JT, Jennings JT, Johnson NF, Lelej AS, Longino JT, Lohrmann V, Miko I. 2013. Order Hymenoptera. In: Zhang, Z.-Q.(Ed.) Animal Biodiversity: An Outline of Higher-level Classification and Survey of Taxonomic Richness (Addenda 2013). Zootaxa 3703: 51-62. http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3703.1.12

Bouček, Z. 1974. A revision of the Leucospidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) of the world. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) Entomology Supplement 23: 1-241.

Boucek, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera). A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. pp. 832pp. CAB International, Wallingford, Oxon, U.K., Cambrian News Ltd; Aberystwyth, Wales.

Bouček Z, Noyes JS. 1987. Rotoitidae, a curious new family of Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera) from New Zealand. Systematic Entomology 12(4): 407–412. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3113.1987.tb00212.x

Branstetter MG, Childers AK, Cox-Foster D, Hopper KR, Kapheim KM, Toth AL, Worley KC. 2018. Genomes of the Hymenoptera. Current Opinion in Insect Science 25: 65-75. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cois.2017.11.008

Burks R, Mitroiu M-D, Fusu L, Heraty JM, Janšta P, Heydon S, Papilloud ND-S, Peters RS, Tselikh EV, Woolley JB, van Noort S, Baur H, Cruaud A, Darling C, Haas M, Hanson P, Krogmann L, Rasplus J-Y. 2022. From hell’s heart I stab at thee! A determined approach to rendering Pteromalidae (Hymenoptera) monophyletic. Journal of Hymenoptera Research 94:13-88. https://doi.org/10.3897/jhr.94.94263

Cruaud, A., Delvare, G., Nidelet, S., Sauné, L., Ratnasingham, S., Chartois, M., Blaimer, B.B., Gates, M., Brady, S.G., Faure, S., van Noort, S., Rossi, J.-P. and Rasplus, J.-Y. 2020Ultra-Conserved Elements and morphology reciprocally illuminate conflicting phylogenetic hypotheses in Chalcididae (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea)Cladistics 37: 1-35. doi:10.1111/cla.12416 https://doi.org/10.1111/cla.12416

Cruaud A, Rasplus J-Y, Zhang J, Burks R, Delvare G, Fusu L, Gibson GAP, Gumovsky A, Hanson P, Huber JT, Janšta P, Mitroiu M-D, Noyes JS, van Noort S, Baker A, Böhmová J, Baur H, Blaimer BB, Brady1 SG, Bubeníková K, Chartois M, Copeland RS, Dale-Skey Papilloud N, Dal Molin A, Darling C, Dominguez C, Fisher N, Gates MW, Gebiola M, Guerrieri E, Haas M, Hansson C, Heydon S, Kresslein RL, Krogmann L, Moriarty Lemmon E, Mottern J, Murray E, Nidelet S, Nieves Aldrey JL, Perry R, Peters RS, Pinto JD, Polaszek A, Sauné L, Schmidt S, Torréns J, Triapitsyn S, Tselikh EV, Ubaidillah R, Yoder M, Lemmon A, Woolley JB, Heraty JM. 2024. The Chalcidoidea bush of life – Evolutionary history of a massive radiation of minute wasps. Cladistics 40: 34-63. http://doi.org/10.1111/cla.12561

Ghesquière, J. 1946. Contribution à l'étude de microhyménoptères du Congo Belge. X. Nouvelles dénominations pour quelques genres de Chalcidoidea et Mymaroidea. XI. Encore les gn. Chalcis, Smiera, et Brachymeria (Hym. Chalcidoidea). Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaines 39: 371.

Gibson G.A.P. 1993. Superfamilies Mymarommatoidea and Chalcidoidea (pp. 570-655). In GOULET, H. & HUBER, J. (eds). Hymenoptera of the World: an identification guide to families. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, Ottawa, Canada, 668 pp.

Gibson, G.A.P., Huber, J.T., Woolley, J.B. (Editors) 1997. Annotated keys to the genera of Nearctic Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera) :794pp National Research Council Research Press, Ottawa, Canada.

Heraty, J.M. 2017. Catalog of World Eucharitidae, 2017. Electronic publication: https://hymenoptera.ucr.edu/EucharitidaeCatalog2017.pdf

Heraty, J.M., Burks, R.A., Cruaud, A., Gibson, G.A.P., Liljeblad, J., Munro, J., Rasplus, J.-Y., Delvare, G., Janšta, P., Gumovsky, A., Huber, J., Woolley, J.B., Krogmann, L., Heydon, S., Polaszek, A., Schmidt, S., Darling, D.C., Gates, M.W., Mottern, J., Murray, E., Dal Molin, A., Triapitsyn, S., Baur, H., Pinto, J.D., van Noort, S., George, J. & Yoder, M. 2013. A phylogenetic analysis of the megadiverse Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera). Cladistics 29: 466–542. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cla.12006

Huber JT, Read JD, Triapitsyn SV 2021. Illustrated key to the genera and catalogue of Mymaridae (Hymenoptera) in the Afrotropical region. Zootaxa 5036: 1–166. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.5036.1.1

Jansta, P & Cruaud, A & Delvare, G & Genson, G & Heraty, J & Krizkova, B & Rasplus, J-Y. 2017. Torymidae (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea) revised: Molecular phylogeny, circumscription and reclassification of the family with discussion of its biogeography and evolution of life-history traits. Cladistics. 10.1111/cla.12228.

Johnson BR, Borowiec ML, Chiu JC, Lee EK, Atallah J, Ward PS. 2013. Phylogenomics resolves evolutionary relationships among ants, bees, and wasps. Current Biology 23: 2058–2062. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2013.08.050

Kirby, W.F. 1883. Remarks on the genera of the subfamily Chalcidinae, with synonymic notes and descriptions of new species of Leucospidinae and Chalcidinae. Journal of the Linnean Society of London, Zoology 17 (98): 53-78, pls 3, 4.

Kirby, W.F. 1900. Expedition to Sokotra XII: descriptions of the new species of Hymenoptera. Bulletin of the Liverpool Museums 3 (1): 13-24.
Kirby, W.F. 1903. Arthropoda. Insecta: Hymenoptera. In: Forbes H.O. (ed.), The Natural History of Sokotra and Abd-El-Kuri: 233-260, pls 15, 16.
Klug F.F. 1834. Symbolae physicae, seu icones et descriptiones insectorum, quae in itinere per Africam borealem et Asiam occidentalem Friderici Guilelmi Hemprich et Christiani Godofredi Ehrenberg, studio, novae aut illustratae redierunt. Pars Zoologica. Insecta. 4. Berlin (G. Reimer): pls 31-40.

Madl, M. & Schwarz, M. 2012. Catalogue and faunistics of the family Leucospidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) of the Ethiopian region excluding Malagasy subregion. Linzer biologische Beiträge 44: 1221-1235.

Munro, J.B., Heraty, J.M., Burks, R.A., Hawks, D., Mottern, J., Cruaud, A., Rasplus, J.-Y. & Jansta, P. 2011. A Molecular Phylogeny of the Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera). PLoS ONE, 6 (11), e27023. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0027023

Noyes, J.S. 2014. Universal Chalcidoidea Database, Natural History Museum London. http://www.nhm.ac.uk/entomology/chalcidoids/index.html

Peters RS, Krogmann L, Mayer C, Donath A, Gunkel S, Meusemann K, Kozlov A, Podsiadlowski L, Petersen M, Lanfear R, Diez PA. 2017. Evolutionary history of the Hymenoptera. Current Biology 27:1013-1018. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2017.01.027

Prinsloo, G.L. 1984. An illustrated guide to the parasitic wasps associated with citrus pests in the Republic of South Africa. Science Bulletin, Department of Agriculture, Republic of South Africa 402:

Risbec, J. 1951. 1. Les Chalcidoides de l'Afrique occidentale française. Mémoires de l'Institute Français d'Afrique Noire, Ifan-Dakar 13: 7-409.

Risbec, J. 1951. Chalcidoïdes d'A.O.F. Bulletin de l'Institut Français d'Afrique Noire 13: 1110-1130.

Risbec, J. 1952. Contribution à l'étude des Chalcidoïdes de Madagascar. Mémoires de l'Institute Scientifique de Madagascar, Série E 2: 1–449.

Risbec J. 1954. Chalcidoides et Proctotrupoides de l’Afrique occidentale française (3. Supplément). Bulletin de l'Institut Française de l’Afrique Noire 16 (2): 524-552.

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Risbec J. 1956. Hyménoptères parasites du Cameroun. Bulletin de l’Institut français d’Afrique noire sér. A, Sciences naturelles 18 (1): 97-164.

Risbec J. 1957. Hyménoptères, Proctotrupidae et Chalcidoïdes. Mémoires de l’Institut scientifique de Madagascar (E) 8: 321-366.

Risbec, J. 1958. Chalcidoïdes nouveaux d'Afrique du Sud. Occasional Papers of the National Museum of Southern Rhodesia No 22(B):147-162.

Risbec J. 1958. Contributions a la connaissance des Hymenopteres Chalcido!des et Proctotrupoldes de rAfrique Noire. Ann. Mus. Congo BeIge Tervuren, in-8°, Zool. 64: 1-139.

Sharkey, M., 2007. Phylogeny and classification of Hymenoptera. Zootaxa 1668: 521–548.

Sharkey, M. J., Carpenter, J. M., Vilhelmsen, L., Heraty, J., Liljeblad, J., Dowling, A. P.G., Schulmeister, S., Murray, D., Deans, A. R., Ronquist, F., Krogmann, L. and Wheeler, W. C. 2012. Phylogenetic relationships among superfamilies of Hymenoptera. Cladistics 28: 80–112. doi: 10.1111/j.1096-0031.2011.00366.x

UCD Community. 2023. Universal Chalcidoidea Database Website. https://ucd.chalcid.org.

van Noort, S., Fernandez-Triana J., Baur, H. 2022. Identity of wasp parasitoids (Hymenoptera) attacking Pieris brassicae (Linnaeus, 1758) (Lepidoptera, Pieridae) in South Africa. African Entomology 30: e11738 https://doi.org/10.17159/2254-8854/2022/a11738  

Viggiani, G. 2019. New genera, species, and records of Trichogrammatidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea). Fragmenta Entomologica 51: 161-186. http://dx.doi.org/10.4081/fe.2019.377

Westwood J.O. 1839. Die Hymenopteren-Gattung Leucospis, monographisch behandelt. Zeitschrift für Entomologie 1 (2): 237-266, pls 3, 4.

Westwood, J.O. 1868. Descriptions of new genera and species of Chalcididae. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of London 1868:xxxvii

Zhang, J., Heraty, J.M., Darling, C., Kresslein, R.L., Baker, A.J., Torréns, J., Rasplus, J-Y., Lemmon, A., Lemmon, E.M. 2022 Anchored phylogenomics and a revised classification of the planidial larva clade of jewel wasps (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea). Systematic Entomology 47: 329– 353. https://doi.org/10.1111/syen.12533


Photographs and illustrations © Simon van Noort (Iziko Museums of South Africa).

Web author Simon van Noort (Iziko South African Museum)


Citation: van Noort, S. 2024. WaspWeb: Hymenoptera of the World. URL: www.waspweb.org (accessed on <day/month/year>).

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