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Eucoiline wasps of the World

(Life: Kingdom: Metazoa (animals); Phylum: Arthropoda; Class: Hexapoda; Order: Hymenoptera; Superfamily: Cynipoidea; Family: Figitidae)

ClassificationCynipoidea keys

Acantheucoela Ashmead, 1900 (Neotropical)

Afrodontaspis Weld, 1961(Afrotropical)

Afrostilba Benoit, 1956 (Afrotropical)
Aganaspis Lin, 1987 (Worldwide)
Angustacorpa Quinlan, 1988 (Afrotropical)

Areaspis Lin, 1988 (Afrotropical, Oriental)


Aspidogyrus Yoshimoto, 1962 (Nearctic: Hawaii)


Banacuniculus Buffington, 2010 (Nearctic, Neotropical)

Bothrochacis Cameron, 1904 (Afrotropical, Nearctic (Hawaii), Oriental)


Caleucoela Kieffer, 1909 (Neotropical)


Chrestosema Förster, 1869 (Oriental, Palaearctic)


Coneucoela Kieffer, 1909 (Neotropical)

Cothonaspis Hartig, 1840 (Afrotropical, Holarctic)
  Delomeris Diaz & Gallardo, 1996 (Neotropical)

Dettmeria Borgmeier, 1935 (Neotropical)


Dicerataspis Ashmead, 1896 (Neotropical)

Didyctium Riley, 1879 (Worldwide)

Dieucoila Ashmead, 1903 (Nearctic, Neotropical)


Diglyphosema Förster, 1869 (Palaearctic)


Discaspis Lin, 1988 (Oriental)


Disorygma Förster, 1869 (Palaearctic, Oriental)


Ditanyomeria Yoshimoto, 1963 (Australasian)

Ealata Quinlan, 1986 (Afrotropical, Oriental)
Endecameris Yoshimoto, 1963 (Afrotropical, Australasian, Oriental, Palaearctic)

Epicoela Borgmeier, 1935 (Neotropical)


Epochresta Lin, 1988 (Oriental)


Euxestophaga Gallardo, 2017 (Neotropical)


Eucoila Westwood, 1833 (Holarctic)

  Eutrias Förster, 1869 (Holarctic)

Fontaliella Pujade-Villar, 2013 (Neotropical)

Ganaspidium Weld, 1955 (Afrotropical, Nearctic, Neotropical)
Ganaspis Förster, 1869 (Worldwide)
Garudella Buffington and Forshage, 2014 (Afrotropical, Oriental)
Gastraspis Lin, 1988 (Afrotropical, Oriental)

Glauraspidia Thomson, 1862 (Nearctic, Neotropical, Palaearctic)

Gronotoma Förster, 1869 (Worldwide)
Hexacola Förster, 1869 (Worldwide)

Humboldteria Buffington (Neotropical)


Hydrelliaeucoila Díaz & Gallardo, 2009 (Neotropical)


Hypodiranchis Ashmead, 1901 (Oceanic, Palaearctic)

Kleidotoma Westwood, 1833 (Worldwide)
Leptolamina Yoshimoto, 1962 (Afrotropical, Australasian, Oriental, Palaearctic)
Leptopilina Förster, 1869 (Worldwide)

Linaspis Lin, 1988 (Palaearctic)

Linoeucoila Lin, 1988 (Afrotropical, Oriental)

Lopheucoila Weld, 1951 (Neotropical)


Lispothyreus Yoshimoto, 1962 (Hawaii)


Maacynips Yoshimoto, 1963 (Australasian, Oceanic, Palaearctic)


Macrocereucoila Ashmead, 1887 (nomina dubia)


Marthiella Buffington, 2009 (Neotropical)

Micreriodes Yoshimoto, 1962 (Afrotropical, Australasian, Nearctic, Oriental, Palaearctic)

Microstilba Förster, 1869 (Palaearctic)


Mirandicola Belizin, 1968 (Oriental, Palaearctic)


Moneucoela Kieffer, 1907 (Neotropical)


Moritiella Buffington, 2006 (Neotropical)

Muhaka Buffington & Copeland, 2015 (Afrotropical)
Nanocthulhu Buffington, 2012 (Afrotropical)

Nesodiranchis Perkins, 1910 (Hawaii)

Nordlanderia Quinlan, 1986 (Afrotropical, Palaearctic)
  Nordlanderiana Kovalev, 1989 (Palaearctic)

Nordlandiella Díaz, 1982 (Nearctic, Neotropical)


Odonteucoila Ashmead, 1903 (Neotropical)


Odontosema Kieffer, 1909 (Neotropical)


Paradettmeria Gallardo & Díaz, 2011 (Neotropical)

Paradiglyphosema Lin, 1988 (Afrotropical, Oriental)

Paraganaspis Díaz & Gallardo, 1996 (Nearctic, Neotropical)


Pentamerocera Ashmead, 1896 (Neotropical)


Penteucoila Weld, 1951 (Neotropical)


Perischus Weld, 1931 (Neotropical)


Promiomera Ashmead, 1903 (Neotropical)


Pressia Belizin, 1968 (Palaearctic)


Preseucoela Buffington, 2002 (Nearctic, Neotropical)


Pseudodiranchis Yoshimoto, 1962 (Hawaii)


Quasimodoana Forshage, Nordlander & Ronquist, 2008 (Palaearctic, Nearctic)


Rhabdeucoela Kieffer, 1907 (Neotropical)

Rhoptromeris Förster, 1869 (Worldwide)

Sinatra Buffington, 2011 (Oceanic)


Sinochresta Lin, 1988 (Oriental)


Steleucoela Kieffer, 1908 (Neotropical)

Stentorceps Quinlan, 1984 (Afrotropical)

Striatovertex Schick, Forshage & Nordlander, 2011 (Nearctic inc. Hawaii, Neotropical)


Tetraplasta Ashmead, 1903 (nomina dubia)


Tobiasiana Kovalev, 1979 (Palaearctic)


Tropideucoila Ashmead, 1903 (Neotropical)

Trichoplasta Benoit, 1956 (Worldwide)

  Triplasta Kieffer, 1901 (Neotropical)

Trissodontaspis Ashmead, 1903 (Neotropical)

Trybliographa Förster, 1869 (Worldwide)

Weldia Yoshimoto, 1962 (Hawaii)


Zaeucoila Ashmead, 1903 (Nearctic, Neotropical)


Zamischus Ashmead, 1903 (Neotropical)




Endoparasitoids of larva and pupa of cyclorrhaphous Diptera.


Allemand, R., C. Lemaitre, F. Frey, M. Bouletreau, F. Vavre, G. Nordlander, J. van Alphen and Y. Carton. 2002. Phylogeny of six African Leptopilina species (Hymenoptera: Cynipoidea, Figitidae), parasitoids of Drosophila, with description of three new species. Ann. Soc. Entomol. Fr. 38: 319–332.

Aluja, M.; Lopez, M.; Sivinski, J. 1998. Ecological evidence for diapause in four native and one exotic species of larval-pupal fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) parasitoids in tropical environments Annals of the Entomological Society of America 91:821-833

Ashmead, W.H. 1900. Notes on some New Zealand and Australian Parasitic Hymenoptera, with descriptions of new genera and new species. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 25: 327–360.

Beardsley, J.W. 1989. Hawaiian Eucoilidae (Hymenoptera: Cynipoidea). Key to genera and taxonomic notes on apparently non-endemic species. Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society 29: 165–193.
Beardsley, J. 1992
. Review of the Genus Aspidogyrus Yoshimoto, with descriptions of three new species (Hymenoptera: Cynipoidea: Eucoilidae). Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society 31:139-150.

Borgmeier, T. 1935. Sobre alguns Cynipideos parasiticos e cecidogenos do Brasil (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae). Arquivos do Instituto de Biologia Vegetal 2: 97-124.

Buffington, M. L. 2007. The occurrence and phylogenetic implications of the ovipositor clip within the Figitidae (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Cynipoidea). J. Nat. His. 41: 2267–2282.

Buffington, M.L. 2011. Description, circumscription and phylogenetics of the Diglyphosematini Belizin, 1961, and the description of a new genus (Hymenoptera: Figitidae: Eucoilinae). Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 113: 239–290.

Buffington, M.L. 2012. Description of Nanocthulhu lovecrafti, a preternatural new genus and species of Trichoplastini (Figitidae: Eucoilinae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 114(1): 5-15.

Buffington, ML & Copeland, R.S.  2015. Muhaka icipe, an enigmatic new genus and species of Kleidotomini (Hymenoptera: Figitidae: Eucoilinae) from an East African coastal forest. Journal of Natural History 49: 1-11. DOI: 10.1080/00222933.2015.1042411  

Buffington, ML & Forshage, M. 2014. The Description of Garudella Buffington and Forshage, New Genus (Hymenoptera: Figitidae: Eucoilinae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 116 (3): 225-242.

Buffington, M. L., S. Brady, S. Morita, and S. van Noort. 2012. Divergence estimates and early evolutionary history of Figitidae (Hymenoptera: Cynipoidea). Systematic Entomology 37: 287–304.
Buffington ML, Forshage M, Liljeblad J, Tang CT, van Noort, S. 2020. World Cynipoidea (Hymenoptera):a key to higher-level groups. Insect Systematics and Diversity 4(4): 1–69. https://doi.org/10.1093/isd/ixaa003

Buffington ML, Giorgini M, Lue C-H, Formisano G, Cascone P, Forshage M, Driskell A & Guerrieri E. 2020. Description of the aberrant Leptopilina lasallei n. sp., with an updated phylogeny of Leptopilina Förster (Hymenoptera: Figitidae: Eucoilinae). Journal of Natural History 54: 565-583. https://doi.org/10.1080/00222933.2020.1754483

Diaz, N. 1977. Estudio ecológico y sistemático de Cinipoideos Neotropicales II (Hymenoptera). Epicoela rubicunda Borgmeier y E. seminigra n. sp. Neotrópica 23(70): 189-192.

Diaz, N. & F. Gallardo. 1996. Sobre cinipoideos del Brasil, parasitoides de dipteros estercoleros (Hymenoptera: Cynipoidea). Rev. Soc. Entomol. Argent. 55: 127-129.

Diaz, N.B., Gallardo, F.E., Marchiori, C.H., & Linhares, A.X. 2000. Cynipoidea parasitoids of dung-flies in Brazil. II (Insecta: Hymenoptera). Anais da Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil 29(3): 469-474.

Díaz, N.B., Gallardo, F.E., Gaddi, A.L., & Walsh, G.C. 2009. Description of a new genus and species of Eucoilinae (Hymenoptera: Cynipoidea: Figitidae) parasitoid of Ephydridae (Diptera). Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 102(4): 603-607.

Fontal-Cazalla, F. M., Buffington, M. L., Nordlander, G., Liljeblad, J., Ros-Farré, P., Nieves-Aldrey, J. L., Pujade-Villar, J. & Ronquist, F. 2002. Phylogeny of the Eucoilinae (Hymenoptera: Cynipoidea: Figitidae). Cladistics 18, 154–199.

Forshage, M., & Baiăo, G. 2014. Revision of Mani's Figitidae types (Hymenoptera: Cynipoidea). Zootaxa 3784(4): 498–500. http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3784.4.9

Förster, A. 1869. Ueber die Gallwespen. Verhandlungen der kaiserlich-königlichen zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien 19: 327-370.

Girod, P., Lierhmann, O., Urvois, T., Turlings, T., Kenis, M., & Haye, T. 2018. Host specificity of Asian parasitoids for potential classical biological control of Drosophila suzukii. Journal of pest science, 91(4), 1241–1250. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10340-018-1003-z

Guimaraes, J. A.; Zucchi, R. A.; Diaz, N. B.; de Souza Filho, M. F.; Uchoa F., M. A. 1999. Espzcies de Eucoilinae (Hymenoptera: Cynipoidea: Figitidae) Parasitides de Lavas Frug’voras (Diptera: Tephritidae e Lonchaeidae) no Brasil. Anais da Sociedade Entomologica do Brasil 28:263-273.

Hedicke, H. 1930. Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Cynipiden. (Hym.) XVI Zur Synonymie der Anacharitinen, Eucoilinen und Figitinen. Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift 1930: 74-76

Lue, C. H., A. Driskell, J. Leips, and M. L. Buffington. 2016. Review of the genus Leptopilina (Hymenoptera, Cynipoidea, Figitidae, Eucoilinae) from the Eastern United States, including three newly described species. J. Hym. Res. 53: 35–76.

Mani, M.S. 1936. Some new and little known parasitic Hymenoptera from India. Records of the Indian Museum 38: 333–340.

Nordlander, G. 1980. Revision of the genus Leptopilina Förster, 1869, with notes on the status of some other genera (Hymenoptera, Cynipoidea, Eucoilidae). Entomol. Scan. 11: 428–453.

Nordlander, G. 1982. Identities and relationships of the previously confused genera Odonteucoila, Coneucoela, and Trichoplasta (Hymenoptera, Cynipoidea: Eucoilidae). Insect Systematics & Evolution 13: 269–292. https://doi.org/10.1163/187631282X00327

Novkovic, B., H. Mitsui, A. Suwito, and M. T. Kimura. 2011. Taxonomy and phylogeny of Leptopilina species (Hymenoptera: Cynipoidea: Figitidae) attacking frugivorous drosophilid flies in Japan, with description of three new species. Entomological Science 14: 333–346.

Ovruski, S.; Aluja, M.; Sivinski, J.; Wharton, R. 2000. Hymenopteran parasitoids on fruit-infesting Tephritidae (Diptera) in Latin America and the southern United States: Diversity, distribution, taxonomic status and their use in fruit fly biological control. Integrated Pest Management Reviews 5:81-107.

Quinlan, J. 1986. A key to the Afrotropical genera of Eucoilidae (Hymenoptera), with a revision of certain genera. Bull. Br. Mus. Nat. Hist. (Entomology) 52, 243–366.

Quinlan, J. 1988. A revision of some Afrotropical genera of Eucoilidae (Hymenoptera). Bull. Br. Mus. Nat. Hist. (Entomology) 56, 171–229.

Ronquist, F. 1999. Phylogeny, classification and evolution of the Cynipoidea. Zoologica Scripta 28:139–164.

Schick, Katherine & Forshage, Mattias & Nordlander, Göran. 201). The "false Eucoila" finally named; Striatovertex a new genus of Eucoilinae (Hymenoptera, Cynipoidea, Figitidae). Zootaxa. 2811. 59-65. 10.11646/zootaxa.2811.1.6.

van Noort, S, Buffington ML & Forshage, M. 2015. Afrotropical Cynipoidea (Hymenoptera). ZooKeys 493: 1-176. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.493.6353

Weld, L.H. 1951. A new species of Trybliographa (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae). Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society 14: 331–332.
Weld, L.H. 1951. New Eucoilinae (Hymenoptera: Cynipoidea). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 53(4): 223-224.

Wharton, R. A.; Ovruski, S. M.; Gilstrap, F. E. 1998. Neotropical Eucoilinae (Cynipoidea) associated with fruit infesting Tephritidae, with new records from Argentina, Bolivia, and Costa Rica. Journal of Hymenoptera Research 7: 102-115.

Yoshimoto, C.M. 1962. Insects of Micronesia, Hymenoptera: Eucoilinae (Cynipoidea). Insects of Micronesia 19: 89-107.

Yoshimoto, C.M. 1963. The genera Leptolamina and Maacynips, n. gen. from the Papuan subregion (Hymenoptera: Cynipoidea, Eucoilinae) Pacific Insects 5: 513-517.



Photographs © Simon van Noort (Iziko Museums of South Africa) or © Matt Buffington (Systematic Entomology Laboratory, USDA/ARS), or © Robert Wharton (Texas A&M University).

Web author Simon van Noort (Iziko South African Museum)


Citation: van Noort, S. 2024. WaspWeb: Hymenoptera of the Afrotropical region. URL: www.waspweb.org (accessed on <day/month/year>).

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