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Emarginine wasps of the World

(Life: Kingdom: Metazoa (animals); Phylum: Arthropoda; Class: Hexapoda; Order: Hymenoptera; Superfamily: Cynipoidea; Family: Figitidae)

ClassificationCynipoidea keys

Thoreauella Girault, 1930


Worldwide. The subfamily is represented in all biogeographical regions except the Antarctic, but with very few species in the Holarctic and the majority of species occurring in the Afrotropical region (van Noort et al. 2015).


Unknown (Buffington et al. 2012), possibly associated with ants (Weld, 1960; Díaz, 1978), adults have been collected from formicid refuse piles (Weld, 1960).


Buffington ML, Brady S, Morita S, van Noort S. 2012. Divergence estimates and early evolutionary history of Figitidae (Hymenoptera: Cynipoidea). Systematic Entomology 37: 287–304.

Buffington ML, Forshage M, Liljeblad J, Tang CT, van Noort, S. 2020. World Cynipoidea (Hymenoptera):a key to higher-level groups. Insect Systematics and Diversity 4(4): 1–69. https://doi.org/10.1093/isd/ixaa003

Díaz NB. 1978. Estudio ecológico y sistemático de cinipoideos neotropicales IV (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae). Neotropica 24: 123–125.

Ronquist, F. 1999. Phylogeny, classification and evolution of the Cynipoidea. Zoologica Scripta 28:139–164.

van Noort, S, Buffington ML & Forshage, M. 2015. Afrotropical Cynipoidea (Hymenoptera). ZooKeys 493: 1-176. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.493.6353

Weld, L.H. 1952. Cynipoidea (Hym.) 1905–1950, being a Supplement to the Dalla Torre and Kieffer monograph, the Cynipidae in Das Tierreich, Lieferung 24, 1910 and bringing the systematic literature of the world up to date, including keys to families and subfamilies and list of new generic, specific and variety names. Privately Printed, Ann Arbor, Michigan. 1–351 pp.

Weld LH. 1960. A new genus in Cynipoidea (Hymenoptera). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 62: 195–196.



Photographs © Matt Buffington (Systematic Entomology Laboratory, USDA/ARS)

Web author Simon van Noort (Iziko South African Museum)


Citation: van Noort, S. 2024. WaspWeb: Hymenoptera of the Afrotropical region. URL: www.waspweb.org (accessed on <day/month/year>).

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