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Gall wasps

(Life: Kingdom: Metazoa (animals); Phylum: Arthropoda; Class: Hexapoda; Order: Hymenoptera; Superfamily: Cynipoidea; Family: Cynipidae; Subfamily: Cynipinae)

ClassificationCynipoidea keys


Acraspis Mayr, 1881; 20 species NA

Amphibolips Reinhard, 1865; 53 species NA, NT

Andricus Hartig, 1840; ca 375 species but taxonomy is uncertain and far from stable with many more or less dubious taxa NA, PA, OR, NT


Aphelonyx Mayr, 1881; 3 species PA

Atrusca Kinsey, 1930; 59 species but taxonomy is uncertain NA, NT

Barucynips Medianero & Nieves-Aldrey, 2013; 1 species NT

Bassettia Ashmead, 1887; 9 species NA

Belizinella Kovalev, 1965; 2 species ePA

Belonocnema Mayr, 1881; 2 species NA

Biorhiza Westwood, 1840; 6 species PA, NA

Burnettweldia Pujade-Villar, Melika & Nicholls, 2021 NA

Callirhytis Förster, 1869; 80 species but taxonomy is uncertain and far from stable NA, PA


Cerroneuroterus Melika and Pujade-Villar, 2009; 9 species PA, OR

Chilaspis Mayr, 1881; 2 species wPA

Coffeeikokkos Pujade-Villar & Melika, 2012; 2 species NT

Cyclocynips Melika, Tang & Sinclair, 2013; 2 species OR

Cycloneuroterus Melika & Tang, 2011; 17 species OR, ePA

Cynips Linnaeus, 1758; ca 75 species but taxonomy is uncertain and far from stable with many more or less dubious taxa NA, PA, NT


Disholandricus Melika, Pujade-Villar & Nicholls, 2021 NA


Disholcaspis Dalla Torre & Kieffer, 1910; 55 species NA, NT

Dros Kinsey, 1937; 5 species NA

Dryocosmus Giraud, 1859; 50 species but diagnostic characters need to be revised and new genera will be erected in PA, NA, OR


Erythres Kinsey, 1937; 2 species NA

Eumayria Ashmead, 1887; 6 species NA

Eumayriella Melika & Abrahamson, 1997; 2 species NA

Femuros Kinsey, 1937; 7 species NA

Grahamstoneia Melika & Nicholls, 2021 (Nearctic)

Heteroecus Kinsey, 1922; 12 species NA

Holocynips Kieffer, 1910; 5 species NA

Kinseyella Pujade-Villar & Melika, 2010; 2 species NA

Kokkocynips Pujade-Villar & Melika, 2013; 1 species NT

Latuspina Monzen, 1954; 9 species ePA, OR

Loxaulus Mayr, 1881; 17 species NA, NT

Melikaiella Pujade-Villar, 2014; 14 species


Neuroterus Hartig, 1840; 79 species but taxonomy is uncertain and far from stable including more or less dubious taxa PA, NA, NT


Nichollsiella Melika, Pujade-Villar & Stone, 2021 NA


Odontocynips Kieffer, 1910; 3 species NA, NT

  Paracraspis Weld, 1952 NA

Philonix Fitch, 1859; 7 species NA

Phylloteras Ashmead, 1897; 9 species NA

Plagiotrochus Mayr, 1881; 22 species PA, OR


Protobalandricus Melika, Nicholls & Stone, 2018; 1 species NA

Pseudoneuroterus Kinsey, 1923; 4 species wPA

Sphaeroteras Ashmead, 1897; recently resurrected with 5 species, NA, NT

Striatoandricus Pujade-Villar, 2020

Trichagalma Mayr, 1907; 3 species ePA, OR

Trigonaspis Hartig, 1840; 22 species PA, NA

Ussuraspis Kovalev, 1965; 1 species ePA

Zapatella Pujade-Villar & Melika, 2012; 13 species NA, NT

Zopheroteras Ashmead, 1897; 6 species NA

Distribution Nearctic, Neotropical, Oriental and Palaearctic regions.
Biology Gall inducers on species of Quercus, Castanea, Castanopsis, Chrysolepis and Lithocarpus (Fagaceae), by far the largest number on oaks (Buffington et al. 2020).


Abe, Y., Ide, T., Konishi, K. & Ueno, T. 2014. Discovery of Cynipidae (Hymenoptera: Cynipoidea) from the Indochina region, with description of three new species. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 107: 399–406. https://doi.org/10.1603/AN13180
Abe, Y., Melika, G. & Stone, G.N. 2007. The diversity and phylogeography of cynipid gall wasps (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae) of the Eastern Palaearctic and their associated communities. Oriental Insects 41: 169–212. https://doi.org/10.1080/00305316.2007.10417504
Abe, Y., T. Ide, and K.-I. Odagiri. 2014. Cynipidae (Hymenoptera: Cynipoidea) on Cyclobalanopsis (Fagaceae) in mainland China, with the first record of sexual generation of Bassett, H. F. 1881. New Species of Cynipidae. The Canadian Entomologist. 13: 51–53. doi:10.4039/Ent1351-3

Bellido, D., Ros-Farré, P., Kovalev, O. & Pujade-Villar, J. 2000. Presence of Plagiotrochus Mayr, 1881 in the Himalayan area, with redescription of Plagiotrochus semicarpifoliae (Cameron, 1902) comb. n. (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae). Insect systematics & evolution 31 (3): 241–245.

Buffington ML, Forshage M, Liljeblad J, Tang CT, van Noort, S. 2020. World Cynipoidea (Hymenoptera):a key to higher-level groups. Insect Systematics and Diversity 4(4): 1–69. https://doi.org/10.1093/isd/ixaa003

Buffington, M, Melika, G, Davis, M & Elkinton, J. 2016. The Description of Zapatella davisae, New Species, (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) a Pest Gallwasp of Black Oak ( Quercus velutina ) in New England, USA.. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 118. 14-26. 10.4289/0013-8797.118.1.14.

Cuesta-Porta, V., Arnedo, M.À., Cibrián-Tovar, D., Barrera-Ruiz, U.M., García-Martiñón, R.D., Equihua-Martínez, A., Estrada-Venegas, E.G., Clark-Tapia, R., Romero-Rangel, S. and Pujade-Villar, J., 2020. A new genus of oak gall wasp, Striatoandricus Pujade-Villar (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Cynipini) from America with descriptions of two new Mexican species. Zoological Studies 59: 8 (2020). https://doi.org/10.6620/ZS.2020.59-08

Ferrer-Suay, M, Carpenter, JM, Lebeau, C, Pujade-Villar J. 2017. Designation of lectotypes for the Mexican species of Andricus described by Alfred Kinsey and comments about some generic synonymies (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae). Entomologica Americana 123: 29-34. https://doi.org/10.1664/1947-5144-123.1-4.29
Mayr, G. 1881. Die genera der gallenbewohnenden Cynipiden. Jahresberichte der Rossauer Communal Oberrealschule im I. Bezirke 20:138.

Melika, G. & Nicholls, J.A. 2021. A new genus of Nearctic oak gall wasp, Grahamstoneia Melika & Nicholls, gen. nov. (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae, Cynipini). Zootaxa 4999(5): 456–468. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4999.5.4

Melika G, Pujade-Villar J, Nicholls JA, Cuesta-Porta V, Cooke-Mcewen C, Stone GN. 2021. Three new Nearctic genera of oak cynipid gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Cynipini): Burnettweldia Pujade-Villar, Melika & Nicholls, Nichollsiella Melika, Pujade-Villar & Stone, Disholandricus Melika, Pujade-Villar & Nicholls and re-establishment of the genus Paracraspis Weld. Zootaxa 4993(1): 1–81. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4993.1.1

Pujade-Villar, J. & Rodriguez, P. 2015. Primera cita del género Melikaiella (Hym.: Cynipidae) para Colombia y descripción de una especie nueva. Orsis 29. 193. 10.5565/rev/orsis.23.

Pujade-Villar, J., Hanson, P., Medina, C. A., Torres, M., and Melika, G. 2012. A new genus of oak gallwasps, Zapatella Pujade-Villar & Melika, gen. n., with a description of two new species from the Neotropics (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae, Cynipini). ZooKeys 210: 75-104.

Pujade-Villar, J., Cibrián-Tovar, D., Cibrián-Llanderal, V. D., Equihua-Martínez, A., Estrada-Venegas, E. G., Serrano-Muñoz, M. and Lomeli-Flores, J. R. 2014. A new genus of oak gallwasp, Melikaiella Pujade-Villar (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Cynipini), from the Nearctic region. Dugesiana 21: 1-29.

Pujade-Villar, J., Kang, M., Bae, J., Wang, Y.-P., Guo, R. & Jung, S. 2020. Additional records to the Korean Cynipini: subspecies description, new combinations and checklist (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae). Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology 23: 1208–1221.

Ritchie, A.J. 1993. Superfamily Cynipoidea (pp. 521-536). In GOULET, H. & HUBER, J. (eds). Hymenoptera of the World: an identification guide to families. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, Ottawa, Canada, 668 pp.

Ronquist, F. 1999. Phylogeny, classification and evolution of the Cynipoidea. Zoologica Scripta 28:139–164.

Ronquist, F. & Liljeblad, J. 2001. Evolution of the gall wasp–host plant association. Evolution 55: 2503–2522.

Ronquist, F., Nieves-Aldrey, J.-L., Buffington, M. L., Liu, Z., Liljeblad, J., & Nylander, J. A. A. 2015. Phylogeny, Evolution and Classification of Gall Wasps: The Plot Thickens. PLoS ONE, 10(5), e0123301. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0123301

Tang, C.-T., G. Melika, J. A. Nicholls, M.-M. Yang, and G. N. Stone. 2011. A new genus of oak gallwasps, Cycloneuroterus Melika & Tang, with the description of five new species from Taiwan (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Cynipini). Zootaxa 3008: 33–62.
Tang, C.-T., G. Melika, M.-M. Yang, J. A. Nicholls, and G. N. Stone. 2011. New species of oak gallwasps from Taiwan (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Cynipini). Zootaxa 2865: 37–52.
Tang, C.-T., F. Sinclair, J. Hearn, M.-M. Yang, G. N. Stone, J. A. Nicholls, S. Schweger, and G. Melika. 2016. Eight new species of Cycloneuroterus Melika & Tang gallwasps from Taiwan and mainland China (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Cynipini). Zootaxa 4088: 451–488.

Tang, C.T., Melika, G., Nicholls, J.A., Yang, M.M. and Stone, G.N., 2020. A New Cycloneuroterus Melika & Tang oak gallwasp species (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Cynipini) associated with Lithocarpus (Fagaceae) from Taiwan. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 122(1): 184-196.

Wang Q, Wang X-D & Zhu D-H. 2021. A new species of Plagiotrochus from China (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Cynipini) galling on Quercus glauce (Fagaceae). Zootaxa, 4995(2): 389–395. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4995.2.12


Photographs © Matt Buffington (Systematic Entomology Laboratory, USDA/ARS), or Irene Lobato-Vila (University of Barcelona).

Web author Simon van Noort (Iziko South African Museum)


Citation: van Noort, S. 2022. WaspWeb: Hymenoptera of the Afrotropical region. URL: www.waspweb.org (accessed on <day/month/year>).

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