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Apis_mellifera

Apidae

Honey Bees, Sweat bees, Cuckoo bees, Digger bees, Carpenter bees of the Afrotropical Region

(Life: Kingdom: Metazoa (animals); Phylum: Arthropoda; Class: Hexapoda; Order: Hymenoptera; Superfamily: Apoidea)

Classification

Apinae
  Nomadininae
Xylocopinae 

Distribution

Worldwide.

Biology

Provision the nest with pollen and nectar.

Reference

Brothers D.J. 1999. Phylogeny and evolution of wasps, ants and bees (Hymenoptera, Chrysidoidea, Vespoidea and Apoidea) Zoologica Scripta 28: 233250.

Eardley, C.D. 2004. Taxonomic revision of the African stingless bees (Apoidea: Apidae: Apinae: Meliponini). African Plant Protection 10: 6396.

Eardley, C & Urban, R. 2010. Catalogue of Afrotropical bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Apiformes). Zootaxa 2455: 1-548.

Eardley, C, Finnamore, A.T. & Michener, C.D. 1993. Superfamily Apoidea (pp. 279-357). In GOULET, H. & HUBER, J. (eds). Hymenoptera of the World: an identification guide to families. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, Ottawa, Canada, 668 pp.

Eardley C.,Kuhlmann M., Pauly A. 2010. The Bee Genera and Subgenera of sub-Saharan Africa. Abc Taxa vol 7: i-vi, 138 pp.

Gess, S.K. & Gess, F.W. 2014. Wasps and bees in southern Africa. SANBI Biodiversity Series 24. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria. 320 pp.

Michener, C.D. 2000. The Bees of the World. Johns Hopkins University Press. 953 pp.

Sharkey, M., 2007. Phylogeny and classification of Hymenoptera.
Zootaxa 1668: 521548.

Sharkey, M. J., Carpenter, J. M., Vilhelmsen, L., Heraty, J., Liljeblad, J., Dowling, A. P.G., Schulmeister, S., Murray, D., Deans, A. R., Ronquist, F., Krogmann, L. and Wheeler, W. C. 2012. Phylogenetic relationships among superfamilies of Hymenoptera. Cladistics 28: 80112. doi: 10.1111/j.1096-0031.2011.00366.x

Credits

Photographs Simon van Noort (Iziko Museums of South Africa)


Web author Simon van Noort (Iziko South African Museum)

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