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of the World

(Life: Kingdom: Metazoa (animals); Phylum: Arthropoda; Class: Hexapoda; Order: Hymenoptera)

Diapriidae (Worldwide)

Ismaridae (Worldwide)
Maamingidae (New Zealand)
Monomachidae (Australia, New Guinea and South America)




Endoparasitoids of mostly Diptera, and rarely Coleoptera and Hymenoptera.


Aguiar AP, Deans AR, Engel MS, Forshage M, Huber JT, Jennings JT, Johnson NF, Lelej AS, Longino JT, Lohrmann V, Miko I. 2013. Order Hymenoptera. In: Zhang, Z.-Q.(Ed.) Animal Biodiversity: An Outline of Higher-level Classification and Survey of Taxonomic Richness (Addenda 2013). Zootaxa 3703: 51-62. http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3703.1.12

Branstetter MG, Childers AK, Cox-Foster D, Hopper KR, Kapheim KM, Toth AL, Worley KC. 2018. Genomes of the Hymenoptera. Current Opinion in Insect Science 25: 65-75. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cois.2017.11.008

Dodd A.P. 1920. Notes on the exotic Proctotrupoidea in the British and Oxford University Museums, with descriptions of new genera and species. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1919 (3-4): 321-382. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2311.1920.tb00008.x Ferrière, C. 1935. Les hymenopteres parasites des mouches tsetse. Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft 16: 328-340.

Ghesquire J. 1934. Un Diapriide (Hym. Proct.) nouveau du Congo belge et clef des espèces éthiopiennes. Bulletin du Musee Royal d’histoire naturelle de Belgique 10 (23): 3 pp.

Ghesquire J. 1941. Contribution à l'etude des Hyménoptères du Congo belge. VII. Nouveaux Proctotrupoidea Diapriidae. Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaines 34 (3-4): 353-362.

Huggert L. 1977. Descriptions and redescriptions of species of the genus Trichopria Ashm., 1893 from Malagasy and the Ethiopian region (Hymenoptera, Proctotrupoidea: Diapriidae). Entomologica Scandinavica 8: 205-217.

Huggert L. 1979. Descriptions and redescriptions based on a study of Kieffer’s Trichopria-types from the Seychelles Islands (Hymenoptera, Proctotrupoidea: Diapriidae). Entomologica Scandinavica 10 (1): 13-26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/187631279X00367
Huggert L. 1982. Descriptions and redescriptions of Trichopria species from Africa and the Oriental and Australian regions (Hymenoptera, Proctotrupoidea: Diapriidae). Entomologica Scandinavica 13: 109-122.
Huggert L. & Masner L. 1983. A review of myrmecophilic-symphilic diapriid wasps in the Holarctic realm, with descriptions of new taxa and a key to genera (Hymenoptera: Proctotrupoidea: Diapriidae). Contributions of the American Entomological Institute 20: 63-89.

Johnson BR, Borowiec ML, Chiu JC, Lee EK, Atallah J, Ward PS. 2013. Phylogenomics resolves evolutionary relationships among ants, bees, and wasps. Current Biology 23: 2058–2062. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2013.08.050

Johnson, N.F. 1992. Catalog of world Proctotrupoidea excluding Platygastridae. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 51: 1-825. doi:10.5281/zenodo.23657

Johnson NF, Musetti L. 2012. Genera of the parasitoid wasp family Monomachidae (Hymenoptera: Diaprioidea). Zootaxa 3188: 31–41.

Kieffer JJ. 1904. Nouveaux proctotrypides myrmécophiles. Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Metz 23: 31-58.

Kieffer JJ. 1905. Description de nouveaux Proctotrypides exotiques. Annales de la Société scientifique de Bruxelles 29: 95-142.
Kieffer JJ. 1905. Ueber neue myrmekophile Hymenopteren. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 50 (1905): 1-10.

Kieffer JJ. 1910. Serphiden und Cynipiden von Madagaskar. In: Voeltzkow A., Reise in Ostafrika in den Jahren 1903-1905 mit Mitteln der Hermann und Elise Heckmann Wentzel-Stiftung ausgeführt von Professor Dr. Alfred Voeltzkow. Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse 2 (5): 529-534.

Kieffer JJ. 1910. Serphidae, Cynipidae, Chalcididae, Evaniidae und Stephanidae aus Aequatorialafrika. Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der Deutschen Zentral-Afrika-Expedition 3: 91-119. doi:10.5281/zenodo.24312

Kieffer JJ. 1910. Fam. Belytidae. Genera Insectorum. No. 107. 47 pp.

Kieffer JJ. 1912. Hymenoptera, Proctotrupoidea. Transactions of the Linnean Society of London, 2. series, Zoology, 15 (1): 45-80, pls 2, 3. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-3642.1912.tb00089.x
Kieffer JJ. 1912. Hymenoptera Fam. Diapriidae. In: Wytsman P. (ed.), Genera Insectorum 124: 75 pp.

Kieffer JJ. 1913. Description de nouveaux microhymenopteres. Brotéria 11: 169-198. doi:10.5281/zenodo.24317

Kieffer JJ. 1913. Deux nouveaux Diapriides d'Afrique. Boll. Lab. Zool. Gen. Agr. 7: 91-92.
Kieffer JJ. 1913. Nouveaux microhymténoptères de l'Afrique équatoriale. Boll. Lab. Zool.
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Kieffer JJ. 1913. Proctotrupidae, Cynipidae et Evaniidae. Voyage de Ch. Alluaud et R. Jeannel en Afrique Orientale (1911-1912). Resultats scientifiques. Hymenoptera 1: 1-35

Kieffer JJ. 1914. Hymenoptera III. Serphidae (Proctotrupidae). pp. 201-207. In: Michaelson W. 1914. Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Land- und Süsswasserfauna Deutsch-Südwestafrikas. Ergebnisse der Hamburger deutsche-südwestafrikanischen Studienreise 1911. L. Friederichsen, Hamburg https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.7352 

Kim C-J, Copeland RS, Notton DG. 2018. The family Ismaridae Thomson (Hymenoptera, Diaprioidea): first record for the Afrotropical region with description of fourteen new species. African Invertebrates 59(2): 127-163. https://doi.org/10.3897/afrinvertebr.59.24403

Kolyada, V.A., Mostovski, M.B., & Brothers, D.J. 2004. New data on proctotrupid wasp genus Exallonyx Kieffer (Hymenoptera: Proctotrupidae) from South Africa, with description of a new species and new synonymy. African Invertebrates. 45: 237-248.

Kolyada, V. A., & Mostovski M.B. 2007On a putative Gondwanan relic Afroserphus bicornis Masner (Hymenoptera: Proctotrupidae), with a description of the hitherto unknown female. African Invertebrates 48(2): 261-265.

Klug, JCF. 1841. Die Arten der Gattung Pelecinus (Latr.). Zeitschrift für die Entomologie, herausgegeben von Ernst Friedrich Germar 3(2): 377-385; pl.2.

Madl M. 2015. A catalogue of the families Ceraphronidae, Megaspilidae (Ceraphronoidea), Diapriidae (Diaprioidea) and Proctotrupidae (Proctotrupoidea) of the Malagasy subregion (Insecta: Hymenoptera). Linzer Biologische Beitraege 47(1): 621–652.

Masner, L. 1961.  Proctotrupidae. Key to the genera of the world (Hymenoptera Proctotrupoidea). Exploration Parc National de l' Upemba Mission G. F. de Witte 1946-1949 60(4): 37-47.

Masner L. 1969. Two new genera of Diapriinae (Diapriidae, Hymenoptera) with transantarctic relationships. Psyche 76: 311-325.

Masner, L. 1993. Superfamily Proctotrupoidea (pp. 537-557). In GOULET, H. & HUBER, J. (eds). Hymenoptera of the World: an identification guide to families. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, Ottawa, Canada, 668 pp.

Nixon G.E.J. 1930. The Ethiopian Representatives of the Genus Galesus (Proctotrupoidea) with
descriptions of new species. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, 10th series 6 (34): 399-414. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00222933008673233

Notton DG. 2004. A catalogue of types of the smaller taxa of Proctotrupoidea (Hymenoptera) in the Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, Paris, with notes on the history of the insect collection of L.A.G. Bosc d’Antic. Zoosystema 29 (3): 457-470.

Notton DG. 2014. A catalogue of types of Diapriinae (Hymenoptera, Diapriidae) at the Natural History Museum, London. European Journal of Taxonomy 75: 1-123.

Peters RS, Krogmann L, Mayer C, Donath A, Gunkel S, Meusemann K, Kozlov A, Podsiadlowski L, Petersen M, Lanfear R, Diez PA. 2017. Evolutionary history of the Hymenoptera. Current Biology 27:1013-1018. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2017.01.027

Risbec, J. 1950. Contribution a l'etude des Proctotrupidae (Serphiidae). Proctotrupides de la Section technique d'Agriculture tropicale (A.O.F.) et Proctotrupides du Museum national d'Histoire naturelle (Afrique et Colonies francaises). Travaux du Laboratoire d'Entomologie du Secteur So No. 1- 639.

Risbec J. 1953. Proctotrupidae de Madagascar. Espèces récoltées par M. R. Paulian. Mémoires de l’Institut scientifique de Madagascar (E) 3: 313-348.
Risbec J. 1953. Chalcidoïdes et Proctotrupoïdes de l’Afrique occidentale française. (2e Supplément). Bulletin de l’Institut français d’Afrique noire sér. A, Sciences naturelles 15: 549-609.

Risbec J. 1954. Chalcidoides et Proctotrupoides de l’Afrique occidentale française (3. Supplément). Bulletin de l'Institut Française de l’Afrique Noire 16 (2): 524-552.

Risbec J. 1956. Hyménoptères parasites du Cameroun. Bulletin de l’Institut français d’Afrique noire sér. A, Sciences naturelles 18 (1): 97-164.

Risbec J. 1957. Hyménoptères, Proctotrupidae et Chalcidoïdes. Mémoires de l’Institut scientifique de Madagascar (E) 8: 321-366.

Sharkey, M., 2007. Phylogeny and classification of Hymenoptera.
Zootaxa 1668: 521–548.

Sharkey, M. J., Carpenter, J. M., Vilhelmsen, L., Heraty, J., Liljeblad, J., Dowling, A. P.G., Schulmeister, S., Murray, D., Deans, A. R., Ronquist, F., Krogmann, L. and Wheeler, W. C. 2012. Phylogenetic relationships among superfamilies of Hymenoptera. Cladistics 28: 80–112. doi: 10.1111/j.1096-0031.2011.00366.x

Silvestri, F. 1913. Viaggio in Africa per cercare parassiti di mosche dei frutti. Bollettino del Laboratorio di Zoologia Generale e Agraria, Portici 8: 1-164.

Silvestri, F. 1914. Report of an expedition to Africa in search of the natural enemies of fruit flies (Trypaneidae) with descriptions, observations and biological notes. Territory of Hawaii Board of Agriculture and Forestry, Division of Entomology Bulletin 3: 1-146, 167-176 + plates.

Sundholm, A. 1970. Hymenoptera. Proctotrupidae. In: Hanstrom, B, Brink, P. & Rudebeck, G. (eds.) South African Animal Life. Lund: Berlingska Boktryckeriet 14: 306-401.

Townes, H. K. & M. Townes. 1981. A revision of the Serphidae (Hymenoptera). Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 32: 1-541.

Tymochko LI, Cuaranhua C, Gumovsky, AV. 2021. Habitat distribution of diapriid parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera, Diaprioidea) in eastern Mozambique. International Journal of Tropical Insect Science https://doi.org/10.1007/s42690-021-00529-0

Wharton, R. A., Trostle, M. K., Messing, R. H., Copeland, R. S., Kimani-Njogu, S. W., Lux, S., Overholt, W. A., Mohamed, S., Sivinski, J. 2000. Parasitoids of medfly, Ceratitis capitata, and related tephritids in Kenyan coffee: a predominantly koinobiont assemblage. Bulletin of Entomological Research 90: 517-526

Yoder, M. 2021. The Diapriidae. http://www.diapriid.org/projects/4/public/site/diapriid/home

Yoder M.J. & Wharton R.A. 2002. Nomenclature of African Psilini (Hymenoptera: Diapriidae) and status of Coptera robustior, a parasitoid of Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae). The Canadian Entomologist 134 (5): 561-576. http://dx.doi.org/10.4039/Ent134561-5


Photographs © Simon van Noort (Iziko Museums of South Africa).

Web author Simon van Noort (Iziko South African Museum)


Citation: van Noort, S. 2024. WaspWeb: Hymenoptera of the World. URL: www.waspweb.org (accessed on <day/month/year>).

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