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Cynipoidea of the world

(Life: Kingdom: Metazoa (animals); Phylum: Arthropoda; Class: Hexapoda; Order: Hymenoptera)


Identification keys






Distribution Worldwide
Biology Parasitoids or phytophages (gall formers and inquilines).


Aguiar AP, Deans AR, Engel MS, Forshage M, Huber JT, Jennings JT, Johnson NF, Lelej AS, Longino JT, Lohrmann V, Miko I. 2013. Order Hymenoptera. In: Zhang, Z.-Q.(Ed.) Animal Biodiversity: An Outline of Higher-level Classification and Survey of Taxonomic Richness (Addenda 2013). Zootaxa 3703: 51-62. http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3703.1.12

Ashmead, W.H. 1900. Notes on some New Zealand and Australian Parasitic Hymenoptera, with descriptions of new genera and new species. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 25: 327–360.

Bassett, H. F. 1881. New Species of Cynipidae. The Canadian Entomologist. 13: 51–53. doi:10.4039/Ent1351-3

Benoit, P.L.G. 1955. Les Liopteridae Oberthurellinae du Congo Belge. Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaines 52: 283–293.

Benoit, P.L.G. 1956. Liopteridae-Mesocynipinae nouveaux du Congo Belge (Hym.-Cynipoidea). Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaines 53: 51-56.

Branstetter MG, Childers AK, Cox-Foster D, Hopper KR, Kapheim KM, Toth AL, Worley KC. 2018. Genomes of the Hymenoptera. Current Opinion in Insect Science 25: 65-75. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cois.2017.11.008

Buffington, M.L. 2011. Description, circumscription and phylogenetics of the Diglyphosematini Belizin, 1961, and the description of a new genus (Hymenoptera: Figitidae: Eucoilinae). Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 113: 239–290.

Buffington, M.L. 2012. Description of Nanocthulhu lovecrafti, a preternatural new genus and species of Trichoplastini (Figitidae: Eucoilinae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 114(1): 5-15.

Buffington, ML & Copeland, R.S.  2015. Muhaka icipe, an enigmatic new genus and species of Kleidotomini (Hymenoptera: Figitidae: Eucoilinae) from an East African coastal forest. Journal of Natural History 49: 1-11. DOI: 10.1080/00222933.2015.1042411

Buffington, M. L., and J. Liljeblad 2008. The description of Euceroptrinae, a new subfamily of Figitidae (Hymenoptera), including a revision of Euceroptres Ashmead, 1896, and the description of a new species. Journal of Hymenoptera Research 17: 44–56.

Buffington, M.L. & van Noort, S. 2007. A world revision of Pycnostigminae (Cynipoidea: Figitidae) with descriptions of seven new species. Zootaxa 1392: 1-30

Buffington, M.L. & van Noort, S. 2009. A world revision of Anacharoides Cameron, 1904 (Hymenoptera: Figitidae) with a description of a new species. Zookeys 20: 245-274.

Buffington, M.L. & van Noort, S. 2012. Revision of the Afrotropical Oberthuerellinae (Cynipoidea: Liopteridae). Zookeys 202: 1-154.

Buffington, M. L., S. Brady, S. Morita, and S. van Noort. 2012. Divergence estimates and early evolutionary history of Figitidae (Hymenoptera: Cynipoidea). Systematic Entomology 37: 287–304.
Buffington ML, Forshage M, Liljeblad J, Tang CT, van Noort, S. In press. World Cynipoidea: a key to higher-level groups. Insect Systematics and Diversity

Cameron, P. 1904. Descriptions of new genera and species of Hymenoptera from Dunbrody, Cape Colony. Records of the Albany Museum 1: 125-160.

Cameron, P. 1905. A new genus and species of Cynipidae from South Africa, representing a new subfamily. Annals and Magazines of Natural History, Series 7, 16,  20-21.

Chai M, Liu Z, Niu Y, Dong Y & Wang Y. 2018. Discovery of two new species of the genus Heteribalia Sakagami (Hymenoptera: Ibaliidae) from China. Entomotaxonomia 40: 217-230. 10.11680/entomotax.2018024.

Benoit, P.L.G. 1956. Figitidae - Aspicerinae nouveaux du Congo Belge. Revue Zool. Bot. afr. 53: 195-204.

Fergusson, N. 1992. A remarkable new genus and species of Cynipoidea (Hymenoptera) from Papua New Guinea. Journal of Natural History 26(3): 659-662.

Ferrer-Suay, M., Selfa, J. & Pujade-Villar, J. 2012. First record of Alloxysta Förster from Madagascar, with descriptions of two new species (Hymenoptera: Cynipoidea: Figitidae: Charipinae). African Entomology 20: 222-228.

Ferrer-Suay, M., Selfa, J., Pujade-Villar, J. 2013. A review of Alloxysta species (Hymenoptera: Cynipoidea: Figitidae: Charipinae) from Africa. African Entomology 21: 255266.

Foelker, C. J., Standley, C. R., Fierke, M. K., Parry, D. and Whipps, C. M. 2015. Host tissue identification for cryptic hymenopteran parasitoids associated with Sirex noctilio. Agricultural and Forest Entomology. doi: 10.1111/afe.12137

Fontal-Cazalla, F. M., Buffington, M. L., Nordlander, G., Liljeblad, J., Ros-Farré, P., Nieves-Aldrey, J. L., Pujade-Villar, J. & Ronquist, F. (2002). Phylogeny of the Eucoilinae (Hymenoptera: Cynipoidea: Figitidae). Cladistics 18, 154–199.

Hedicke, H., and G. Kerrich. 1940. A revision of the family Liopteridae (Hymenopt., Cynipoidea). Transactions of the Royal Entomologocal Society, London 90: 177–228.

Johnson BR, Borowiec ML, Chiu JC, Lee EK, Atallah J, Ward PS. 2013. Phylogenomics resolves evolutionary relationships among ants, bees, and wasps. Current Biology 23: 2058–2062. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2013.08.050

Hedicke, H., and G. Kerrich. 1940. A revision of the family Liopteridae (Hymenopt., Cynipoidea). Transactions of the Royal Entomologocal Society, London 90: 177–228.

Liljeblad, J., Nieves-Aldrey, J.L., Neser, S. & Melika, G. 2011. Adding another piece to the cynipoid puzzle: the description of a new tribe, genus and species of gall wasp (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) endemic to The Republic of South Africa. Zootaxa 2806: 35–52.

Lobato-Vila, I., Pujade-Villar, J. 2019. Revision of world Ceroptresini (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) with the description of a new genus and five new species. Zootaxa. 4685: 1–67. http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4685.1.1

Liu, Z. 1998. A new species of Ibalia from Borneo, and revised phylogeny and historical biogeography of Ibaliidae (Hymenoptera: Cynipoidea). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 7, 149–156. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.part.29275

Liu, Z. 2009. Phylogeny, Biogeography, and Revision of the Subfamily Dallatorrellinae (Hymenoptera: Liopteridae). American Museum Novitates. 3353. 1-23. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3113.1995.tb00099.x

Liu Z & Nordlander G. 1994. Review of the family Ibaliidae (Hymenoptera: Cynipoidea) with keys to the genera and species of the World. Insect Systematics & Evolution 24 (6): 377–392.  https://doi.org/10.1163/187631294X00153

Liu, Z, Ronquist, F. & Nordlander, G. 2007. The cynipoid genus Paramblynotus: revision, phylogeny, and historical biogeography (Hymenoptera, Liopteridae). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 304: 1-151.

Mayr, G. 1881. Die genera der gallenbewohnenden Cynipiden. Jahresberichte der Rossauer Communal Oberrealschule im I. Bezirke 20:138.

Melika, G. 2006. Gall wasps of Ukraine. Cynipidae. Vestnik zoologii, supplement 21, vol. 1–2.
Melika, G. 2012. Superfamily Cynipoidea – cynipoids or gallwasps, pp. 139–146. In A. Lelej (ed.) Annotated catalogue of the insects of the Russian Far East. Vol. I. Hymenoptera. Vladivostok. Dalnauka, Russia (in Russian)
Melika, G., and W. G. Abrahamson. 2002. Review of the world genera of oak cynipid wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Cynipini), pp. 150–190. In G. Melika, and C. Thuroczy (eds.), Parasitic Wasps: evolution, systematics, biodiversity and biological control. Agroinform, Budapest, Hungary.
Melika, G., J. Pujade-Villar, Y. Abe, C. T. Tang, J. A. Nicholls, N. Wachi, T. Ide, M. M. Yang, Z. Pénzes, G. Csóka, and G. N. Stone. 2010. Palaearctic oak gallwasps galling oaks (Quercus) in the section Cerris: re-appraisal of generic limits, with descriptions of new genera and species (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Cynipini). Zootaxa. 2470: 1–79.
Melika, G., C. T. Tang, J. A. Nicholls, M. M. Yang, and G. N. Stone. 2011. Four new species of Dryocosmus gallwasps from Taiwan (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Cynipini). ISRN Zoology. 17 pp. doi:10.5402/2011/725180
Melika, G., E. Buss, J. Nicholls, J. Platt Bird, and G. N. Stone. 2013. Life cycle of Discholcaspis quercusvirens (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) with a description of the sexual generation. Florida Entomol. 96: 991–1001.
Melika, G., C. T. Tang, F. Sinclair, M. M. Yang, K. Lohse, J. Hearn, J. A. Nicholls and G. N. Stone. 2013. A new genus of oak gallwasp, Cyclocynips Melika, Tang & Sinclair (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Cynipini), with descriptions of two new species from Taiwan. Zootaxa.
3630: 534–548.

Nielsen, M. & Buffington, M. 2011. Redescription of Stentorceps Quinlan, 1984 (Hymenoptera: Figitidae), with a description of five new species. African Entomology 19: 597–613.

Nieves-Aldrey, J.L. 1994. Revision of the West-European genera of the tribe Aylacini Ashmead (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 3: 175–206.

Nieves-Aldrey, J. L. 2001. Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Fauna Iberica, vol. 16, 636 pp. M. A. Ramos et al. (eds.). Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales. CSIC, Madrid, Spain.
Nieves-Aldrey, J. L. 2002. Notes on the morphology and biology of Neaylax salviae (Giraud), a cynipid new to the Iberian fauna, with a description of the larva (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae). Bol. Soc. Entomol. Arag. 31: 61–65.
Nieves-Aldrey, J. L. 2012. Revision of the Amphibolips species of Mexico excluding the “niger complex” Kinsey (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae), with description of seven new species. Zootaxa 3545: 1–40.
Nieves-Aldrey, J. L., J. Liljeblad, M. Hernández-Nieves, A. Grez, and J. A. A. Nylander. 2009. Revision and phylogenetics of the genus Paraulax Kieffer (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae) with biological notes and description of a new tribe, a new genus, and five new species. Zootaxa. 2200: 1–40.

Nieves-Aldrey JL, Blas GS. 2015. Revision of the Neotropical genus Eschatocerus Mayr (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae, Eschatocerini) with biological notes and the first description of the terminal larva. Zootaxa 4012: 135-155. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4012.1.7

Nieves-Aldrey J.L., J. Liljeblad, M. Hernández-Nieves, A Grez and J.A.A. Nylander. 2009. Revision and phylogenetics of the genus Paraulax Kieffer (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae) with biological notes and description of a new tribe, a new genus, and five new species Zootaxa 2200: 1-40. 10.5281/zenodo.189597.

Paretas-Martinez, J.; Melika, G.; Pujade-Villar, J. 2009. Description of four new species of Dilyta Förster (Hymenoptera: Figitidae: Charipinae) from the Afrotropical Region. African Entomology 17: 207-214.

Paretas-Martínez, J., Arnedo, M.A., Melika, G., Selfa, J., Seco-Fernández, M.V., Fülöp, D., Pujade-Villar, J. 2007. Phylogeny of the parasitic wasp subfamily Charipinae (Hymenoptera, Cynipoidea, Figitidae) Zoologica Scripta 36: 153–172.

Paretas-Martínez, J., Restrepo-Ortiz C., Buffington, M. L. and Pujade-Villar, J. 2011. Systematics of Australian Thrasorinae (Hymenoptera, Cynipoidea, Figitidae) with descriptions of Mikeiinae, new subfamily, two new genera, and three new species. ZooKeys 108: 21-48. 10.3897/zookeys.108.829. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.108.829

Peters RS, Krogmann L, Mayer C, Donath A, Gunkel S, Meusemann K, Kozlov A, Podsiadlowski L, Petersen M, Lanfear R, Diez PA. 2017. Evolutionary history of the Hymenoptera. Current Biology 27:1013-1018. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2017.01.027

Pujade-Villar, J. 2019. Reclasificación de los grandes taxa de Cynipoidea (Hymenoptera) desde Weld (1952) hasta 2017: la historia de una lucha evolutiva entre el parasitoidismo y la fitofŕgia. Folia Entomol. Mex. 5: 18−65.

Pujade-Villar, J., and M. Ferrer-Suay. 2015. Adjudicació genčrica d’espčcies mexicanes d’ubicació dubtosa descrites per Kinsey i comentaris sobre la fauna mexicana (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Cynipini). Butll. Inst. Catalana Hist. Nat. 79: 7–14.
Pujade-Villar, J., and G. Melika. 2014. Re-establishment of Erythres Kinsey, 1937 as a valid genus of gallwasps from Mexico (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Cynipini). Dugesiana. 21: 155–160.
Pujade-Villar, J., Ros-Farré, P. & Brandao, C.R.F. 2000. Notes on Brazilian Liopteridae (Hymenoptera: Cynipoidea), with the description of Pseudibalia angelicae n. sp. Papéis avulsos de zoologia (Brasil) 41(19): 289-301.

Pujade-Villar, J. & Rodriguez, P. 2015. Primera cita del género Melikaiella (Hym.: Cynipidae) para Colombia y descripción de una especie nueva. Orsis 29. 193. 10.5565/rev/orsis.23.

Pujade-Villar, J. & Schiopu, I. 2015. Species of Aylacini Ashmead, 1903 (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) inducing galls on Papaver L. (Papavaceae) from Romania with description of a new species and notes on parasitoids (Hymenoptera). Zoosystema 37: 505-515. https://doi.org/10.5252/z2015n3a5

Pujade-Villar, J., D. Bellido, G. Segú, and G. Melika. 2001. Current state of knowledge of heterogony in Cynipidae (Hymenoptera, Cynipoidea). Sessió Conjunta de Entomologia ICHN-SCL. 11: 87–107.

Pujade-Villar, J., S. Romero-Rangel, C. Chagoyán-García, A. Equihua-Martínez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas, and G. Melika. 2010. A new genus of oak gallwasps, Kinseyella Pujade-Villar & Melika, with a description of a new species from Mexico (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Cynipini). Zootaxa. 2335: 16–28.

Pujade-Villar, J., Hanson, P., Medina, C. A., Torres, M., and Melika, G. 2012. A new genus of oak gallwasps, Zapatella Pujade-Villar & Melika, gen. n., with a description of two new species from the Neotropics (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae, Cynipini). ZooKeys 210: 75-104.

Pujade-Villar, J., P. Hanson, and G. Melika. 2012. A new genus of oak gallwasp, Coffeikokkos Pujade-Villar & Melika, gen. n., with a description of a new species from Costa Rica (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae). ZooKeys. 168: 19–29.

Pujade-Villar, J., A. Equihua-Martínez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas, and G. Melika. 2013. A new genus of oak gallwasp, Kokkocynips Pujade-Villar & Melika gen. n., with a description of a new species from Mexico (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae). Acta Zool. Mexicana. 29: 209–218.

Pujade-Villar, J., Cibrián-Tovar, D., Cibrián-Llanderal, V. D., Equihua-Martínez, A., Estrada-Venegas, E. G., Serrano-Muńoz, M. and Lomeli-Flores, J. R. 2014. A new genus of oak gallwasp, Melikaiella Pujade-Villar (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Cynipini), from the Nearctic region. Dugesiana 21: 1-29.

Pujade-Villar, J., I. Lobato-Vila, and M. Ferrer-Suay. 2017. Restablecimiento del género Dros Kinsey (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Cynipini) como género válido para especies Americanas. Entomol. Mexicana. 4: 752–758.

Quinlan, J. 1979. A revisionary classification of the Cynipoidea (Hymenoptera) of the Ethiopian Zoogeographical Region. Aspicerinae (Figitidae) and Oberthuerellinae (Liopteridae). Bulletin of the British Museum of Natural History (Entomology) 39: 85-133.

Quinlan, J. 1986. A key to the Afrotropical genera of Eucoilidae (Hymenoptera), with a revision of certain genera. Bull. Br. Mus. Nat. Hist. (Entomology) 52, 243–366.

Quinlan, J. 1988. A revision of some Afrotropical genera of Eucoilidae (Hymenoptera). Bull. Br. Mus. Nat. Hist. (Entomology) 56, 171–229.

Quinlan, J. & Evenhuis, H. H. 1980. Status of the subfamily names Charipinae and Alloxystinae (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae). Systematic Entomology 5: 427–430.

Ritchie, A.J. 1993. Superfamily Cynipoidea (pp. 521-536). In GOULET, H. & HUBER, J. (eds). Hymenoptera of the World: an identification guide to families. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, Ottawa, Canada, 668 pp.

Ronquist, F. 1995. Phylogeny and classification of the Liopteridae, an archaic group of cynipoid wasps (Hymenoptera). Entomologica Scandinavica Supplement 46: 1-74.

Ronquist, F. 1999. Phylogeny, classification and evolution of the Cynipoidea. Zoologica Scripta 28:139–164.

Ronquist, F. & Liljeblad, J. 2001. Evolution of the gall wasp–host plant association. Evolution 55: 2503–2522.

Ronquist, F., Nieves-Aldrey, J.-L., Buffington, M. L., Liu, Z., Liljeblad, J., & Nylander, J. A. A. 2015. Phylogeny, Evolution and Classification of Gall Wasps: The Plot Thickens. PLoS ONE, 10(5), e0123301. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0123301

Ros-Farré, P, Pujade-Villar, J. 2011. Revision of the genus Paraspicera Kieffer, 1907 (Hym: Figitidae: Aspicerinae). Zootaxa 2801: 48–56.

Ros-Farré, P., and J. Pujade-Villar. 2013. Revision of the genus Aspicera Dahlbom, 1842 (Hym.: Figitidae: Aspicerinae). Zootaxa 3606: 1–110.

Ros-Farré, P., F. Ronquist, and J. Pujade-Villar. 2000. Redescription of Acanthaegilips Ashmead, 1897, with characterization of the Anacharitinae and Aspiceratinae (Hymenoptera: Cynipoidea: Figitidae). Zool. J. Linn. Soc-Lond. 129: 467–488.

Sharkey, M., 2007. Phylogeny and classification of Hymenoptera. Zootaxa 1668: 521–548.

Stojanovic, A & Marković, C. 2016. Aylax papaveris (Perris 1839) and Barbotinia oraniensis (Barbotin 1964): species new to the fauna of cynipid gall wasps (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae) of Serbia. Acta Entomologica Serbica 20: 21-25.

van Noort, S. & Buffington, M.L. 2013. Revision of the Afrotropical Mayrellinae (Cynipoidea, Liopteridae), with the first record of Paramblynotus from Madagascar. Journal of Hymenoptera Research 31: 1-64.

van Noort, S, Buffington, ML & Forshage, M. 2014. Review of Afrotropical Figitinae (Figitidae, Cynipoidea, Hymenoptera) with the first records of Neralsia and Lonchidia for the region. ZooKeys 453: 37–69. http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.453.8511

van Noort, S, Buffington ML & Forshage, M. 2015. Afrotropical Cynipoidea (Hymenoptera). ZooKeys 493: 1-176. http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.493.6353

van Noort, S., Stone, G.N., Whitehead, V.B. & Nieves-Aldrey, J.L.  2007. Biology of Rhoophilus loewi (Hymenoptera: Cynipoidea: Cynipidae), with implications for the evolution of inquilinism in gall wasps. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 90: 153-172. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8312.2007.00719.x

Wheeler, W. C. 2012. Phylogenetic relationships among superfamilies of Hymenoptera. Cladistics 28: 80–112. doi: 10.1111/j.1096-0031.2011.00366.x

Weld, L.H. 1951. A new species of Trybliographa (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae). Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society 14: 331–332.
Weld, L.H. 1951. New Eucoilinae (Hymenoptera: Cynipoidea). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 53(4): 223-224.

Weld, L.H. 1952. Cynipoidea (Hym.) 1905–1950, being a Supplement to the Dalla Torre and Kieffer monograph, the Cynipidae in Das Tierreich, Lieferung 24, 1910 and bringing the systematic literature of the world up to date, including keys to families and subfamilies and list of new generic, specific and variety names. Privately Printed, Ann Arbor, Michigan. 1–351 pp.
Weld, L.H. 1957. Cynipid galls of the Pacific Slope (Hymenoptera: Cynipoidea) an aid to their identification. 84 pp. Privately Printed, Ann Arbor, MI.
Weld, L.H. 1959. Cynipid galls of Eastern United States. 124 pp. Privately Printed, Ann Arbor, MI.
Weld, L.H. 1960. Cynipid galls of the Southwest. 52 pp. Privately Printed, Ann Arbor, MI.

Weld, L.H. 1960. A new genus in Cynipoidea (Hymenoptera). Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 62: 195–196.


Photographs © Simon van Noort (Iziko Museums of South Africa).

Matt Buffington (Systematic Entomology Laboratory, USDA/ARS) and Mattias Forshage (Swedish Museum of Natural History) both played an integral role in the development of the Cynipoidea pages.

Web author Simon van Noort (Iziko South African Museum)


Citation: van Noort, S. 2020. WaspWeb: Hymenoptera of the Afrotropical region. URL: www.waspweb.org (accessed on <day/month/year>).

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