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of the World

(Life: Kingdom: Metazoa (animals); Phylum: Arthropoda; Class: Hexapoda; Order: Hymenoptera)

Austroniidae (Australasian)
Heloridae (Worldwide)
Pelecinidae (Nearctic and Neotropical)
Peradeniidae (Australasian)
  Proctorenyxidae (Eastern Oriental and Palaearctic)

Proctotrupidae (Worldwide)

Roproniidae (Nearctic and Palaearctic)
Vanhorniidae (Nearctic, Oriental and Palaearctic)




Endoparasitoids of beetle larva (Coleoptera) or less commonly fly larva (Mycetophilidae: Diptera).


Aguiar AP, Deans AR, Engel MS, Forshage M, Huber JT, Jennings JT, Johnson NF, Lelej AS, Longino JT, Lohrmann V, Miko I. 2013. Order Hymenoptera. In: Zhang, Z.-Q.(Ed.) Animal Biodiversity: An Outline of Higher-level Classification and Survey of Taxonomic Richness (Addenda 2013). Zootaxa 3703: 51-62. http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3703.1.12

Buffington ML & Copeland RS. 2016. Redescription of Helorus ruficornis Förster (Hymenoptera: Heloridae), with a new synonymy and new Afrotropical specimen records.
Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 118: 330-344. http://dx.doi.org/10.4289/0013-8797.118.3.330

Buffington ML, Copeland RS, van Noort S. 2018. Revision of Afroserphus Masner (Hymenoptera: Proctotrupidae) with the description of two new species. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 120: 687-707. https://doi.org/10.4289/0013-8797.120.4.687

Branstetter MG, Childers AK, Cox-Foster D, Hopper KR, Kapheim KM, Toth AL, Worley KC. 2018. Genomes of the Hymenoptera. Current Opinion in Insect Science 25: 65-75. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cois.2017.11.008

Johnson BR, Borowiec ML, Chiu JC, Lee EK, Atallah J, Ward PS. 2013. Phylogenomics resolves evolutionary relationships among ants, bees, and wasps. Current Biology 23: 2058–2062. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2013.08.050

Johnson, N.F. 1992. Catalog of world Proctotrupoidea excluding Platygastridae. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 51: 1-825.

Junhua, He & Chen, Xue-Xin. 2011. Xiphyropronia gen.nov., a new genus of the Roproniidae (Hymenoptera: Proctotrupoidea) from China. Canadian Journal of Zoology. 69. 1717-1719. 10.1139/z91-239.

Kieffer, J. J. 1904. Nouveaux proctotrypides myrmécophiles. Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Metz 23: 31-58.

Kieffer, J. J. 1913. Proctotrupidae, Cynipidae et Evaniidae. Voyage de Ch. Alluaud et R. Jeannel en Afrique Orientale (1911-1912). Resultats scientifiques. Hymenoptera 1: 1-35

Kolyada, V.A., Mostovski, M.B., & Brothers, D.J. 2004. New data on proctotrupid wasp genus Exallonyx Kieffer (Hymenoptera: Proctotrupidae) from South Africa, with description of a new species and new synonymy. African Invertebrates. 45: 237-248.

Kolyada, V. A., & Mostovski M.B. 2007On a putative Gondwanan relic Afroserphus bicornis Masner (Hymenoptera: Proctotrupidae), with a description of the hitherto unknown female. African Invertebrates 48(2): 261-265.

Masner, L. 1961.  Proctotrupidae. Key to the genera of the world (Hymenoptera Proctotrupoidea). Exploration Parc National de l' Upemba Mission G. F. de Witte 1946-1949  60(4): 37-47.

Masner, L. 1965. The types of Proctotrupoidea (Hymenoptera) in the British Museum (Natural History) and in the Hope Department of Entomology, Oxford. Bulletin of the British Museum (natural History) Entomology Supplement, 1, 1–154. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.23697

Masner, L. 1993. Superfamily Proctotrupoidea (pp. 537-557). In GOULET, H. & HUBER, J. (eds). Hymenoptera of the World: an identification guide to families. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, Ottawa, Canada, 668 pp.

Naumann, I.D. 1991. Hymenoptera (Wasps, bees, ants, sawflies). pp. 916-1000 in CSIRO (ed). The Insects of Australia. A textbook for students and research workers. Carlton : Melbourne University Press.

Naumann, I.D. & Masner, L. 1985. Parasitic wasps of the proctotrupoid complex: a new family from Australia and a key to world families (Hymenoptera: Proctotrupoidea sensu lato). Australian Journal of Zoology 33: 761-783

Notton D. G. 2007. A catalogue of types of the smaller taxa of Proctotrupoidea (Hymenoptera) in the Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, Paris, with notes on the history of the insect
collection of L. A. G. Bosc d’Antic. Zoosystema 29: 457-470.

Peters RS, Krogmann L, Mayer C, Donath A, Gunkel S, Meusemann K, Kozlov A, Podsiadlowski L, Petersen M, Lanfear R, Diez PA. 2017. Evolutionary history of the Hymenoptera. Current Biology 27:1013-1018. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2017.01.027

Riek, E.F. 1955. Australian Heloridae, including Monomachidae (Hymenoptera). Australian Journal of Zoology 3: 258-265.

Risbec J. 1950. Contribution à l’étude des Proctotrupidae (Serphidae) : Proctotrupidés de la section technique d’Agriculture tropicale (A. O. F.) et Proctotrupidés du Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle (Afrique et Colonies françaises), in Sagot R. & Risbec J. (eds), Travaux du laboratoire d’entomologie du secteur soudanais de recherches agronomiques. Gouvernement général de l’Afrique occidentale française: 509-639.

Sharkey, M., 2007. Phylogeny and classification of Hymenoptera. Zootaxa 1668: 521–548.

Sharkey, M. J., Carpenter, J. M., Vilhelmsen, L., Heraty, J., Liljeblad, J., Dowling, A. P.G., Schulmeister, S., Murray, D., Deans, A. R., Ronquist, F., Krogmann, L. and Wheeler, W. C. 2012. Phylogenetic relationships among superfamilies of Hymenoptera. Cladistics 28: 80–112. doi: 10.1111/j.1096-0031.2011.00366.x

Sundholm, A. 1970. Hymenoptera. Proctotrupidae. In: Hanstrom, B, Brink, P. & Rudebeck, G. (eds.) South African Animal Life. Lund: Berlingska Boktryckeriet 14: 306-401.

Timokhov AV, Belokobylskij SA 2020. Review of the rare genus Vanhornia Crawford, 1909 (Hymenoptera, Proctotrupoidea, Vanhorniidae) with description of a new species from the Russian Far East. Journal of Hymenoptera Research 79: 57-76. https://doi.org/10.3897/jhr.79.56481

Townes, H.K. 1977. A revision of the Heloridae (Hymenoptera). Contributions of the American Entomological Institute 15: 1-12.

Townes, H.K. & M. Townes. 1981. A revision of the Serphidae (Hymenoptera). Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 32: 1-541.


Photographs © Simon van Noort (Iziko Museums of South Africa), or

Photographs © Ben Parslow (South Australian Museum).

Web author Simon van Noort (Iziko South African Museum)


Citation: van Noort, S. 2024. WaspWeb: Hymenoptera of the World. URL: www.waspweb.org (accessed on <day/month/year>).

Copyright 2004-2024 Iziko Museums of South Africa

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