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of the Afrotropical Region

(Life: Kingdom: Metazoa (animals); Phylum: Arthropoda; Class: Hexapoda; Order: Hymenoptera;  Superfamily: Ichneumonoidea)

ClassificationIdentification keys







































Biology Koinobiont or idiobiont endoparasitoids of insect immature stages or adults. Most commonly larva of Lepidoptera and Coleoptera, but also Hemiptera nymphs and adults; Orthoptera and Psocoptera nymphs; adult Hymenoptera, Coleoptera and Chrysopidae; Symphyta larvae; Diptera larva; Isoptera and Embioptera.


Belokobylskij, S.A. 1992. [On the classification and phylogeny of the braconid wasps subfamilies Doryctinae and Exothecinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) Part 1.] Entomologicheskoye Obozreniye. 71(4):900-927. [Entomological Review. 72(6):109-137.]
Belokobylskij, S.A. 2006. Neoheterospilus gen. n., a new genus of the tribe Heterospilini (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Doryctinae) with highly modified ovipositor and a worldwide distribution. Insect Systematics and Evolution, 37, 149–178.

Belokobylskij, S.A. 2011. Review of the genus Stephanospathius Belokobylskij, 1992 (Hymenoptera, Braconidae), with discussion of their tribal position. Zookeys. 118 :1-17.

Belokobylskij, S.A. 2013. The First Record of the Genus Doryctinus Roman, 1910 (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Doryctinae) in the Old World, with description of a new species from Africa. Annales Zoologici 63: 113-122. doi: 10.3161/000345413X666165

Belokobylskij, S.A. 2020. Two new species of the genus Neoheterospilus Belokobylskij, 2006 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Doryctinae) from Yemen. Zootaxa 4853: 591–600. http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4853.4.8.

Belokobylskij, SA, Zaldivar-Riverón, A & Quicke, DLJ. 2004. Phylogeny of the genera of the parasitic wasps subfamily Doryctinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) based on morphological evidence. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 142(3): 369-404.

Broad GR. 2021. Taxonomic changes in Ichneumonoidea (Hymenoptera), and notes on certain type specimens. Zootaxa 4941: 511–541. http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4941.4.3

Brues, C.T. 1924. Some South African parasitic Hymenoptera of the families Evaniidae, Braconidae, Alysiidae, and Plumariidae in the South African Museum with a catalogue of the known species. Annals of the South African Museum. 19:1-150.

Brues, C.T. 1926. Studies on Ethiopian Braconidae with a catalogue of the African species. Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. 61:206-436.

Brullé, M.A. 1846. Tome Quatričme. Des Hyménoptčres. Les Ichneumonides. In: Lepeletier de Saint-Fargeau A. "Histoire Naturelles des Insectes." Paris. 680 pp. pp. 56-521.
Cameron, P. 1904. Descriptions of new genera and species of Hymenoptera from Dunbrody, Cape Colony. Record of the Albany Museum 1: 25-160. 
Cameron, P. 1905. On the Hymenoptera of the Albany Museum, Grahamstown, South Africa (Second paper). Record of the Albany Museum. 1: 185-244

Cameron, P. 1905. On some new genera and species of Hymenoptera from Cape Colony and Transvaal. Transactions of the South African Philosophical Society 15: 195-257.
Cameron, P. 1906. Descriptions of new species of parasitic Hymenoptera chiefly in the collection of the South African Museum, Cape Town. Annals of the South African Museum 5: 17-186.

Cameron, P. 1909. On some African species of Braconinae in the Royal Berlin Zoological Museum. Archiv for Mathematik og Naturvidenskab 30: 1-27. 
Cameron, P. 1910. On some African species of the subfamilies Exothecinae, Aphrastobraconinae, Cheloninae, Doryctinae, Cardiochilinae and Microgasterinae in the Royal Berlin Zoological Museum. Zeitschrift für Naturwissenschaft 81: 433-450.

Cameron, P. 1911. On the parasitic Hymenoptera collected by Mr. A.J.T. Janse, Transvaal. Annals of the Transvaal Museum 2: 173-217.

Cameron, P. 1912. On the Hymenoptera from Belgian Congo in the Congo Museum, Tervueren. Annales de la Société Entomologique de Belgique. 56:357-401.
Dalla Torre, C.G. de. 1901. Catalogus Hymenopterorum hucusque descriptorum systematicus et synonymicus. Vol.III: Trigonalidae, Megalyridae, Stephanidae, Ichneumonidae, Agriotypidae, Evaniidae, Pelecinidae. Guilelmi Engelmann. 1901:1-544.

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De Saeger, H. 1942. Espčces nouvelles de Streblocera du Congo belge (Hym. Brac. Europhorinae). Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaines. 35(1941): 376-385.

De Saeger, H. 1946. Euphorinae (Hymenoptera Apocrita). Fam. Braconidae. Exploration du Parc National Albert. Mission G.F. de Witte (1933-1935). 50:1-245.
Enderlein, G. 1901. Neue Evaniiden, Stephaniden, Mutilliden (Apterogyna), Proctotrupiden und Chalcididen, mit einer Bestimmungstabelle der africanischen Stephaniden. Archiv für Naturgeschichte. 1(3):187-220.

Enderlein, G. 1912. Zur Kenntnis der Spathiinen und einiger verwandter Gruppen. Archiv für Naturgeschichte. 78(A):1-37.
Enderlein, G. 1920. Zur Kenntnis aussereuropäischer Braconiden. Archiv für Naturgeschichte 84(A)11(1918): 1-224. 
Fernandez-Triana J, Shaw MR, Boudreault C, Beaudin M, Broad GR 2020
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Fischer, M. 1962. Neue Braconiden-Parasiten von schädlichen Insekten (Hymenoptera). Zeitschrift für Angewandte Entomologie. 49:297-312.
Fischer, M. 1981. Untersuchungen an Stephaniscini aus dem Britischen Museum in London und dem Naturwissenschaftlichen Museum in Budapest (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Doryctinae). Oesterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften Mathematisch Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse Sitzungsberichte Abteilung I. 190(6-7): 121-160.

Granger, C. 1949. Braconides de Madagascar. Mémoires de l'Institut Scientifique de Madagascar. (A)2: 1-428.

Kieffer, J.J. 1904. Stephanides. In: André E. (ed.) "Species des Hyménoptčres d'Europe & d'Algérie. Tome 7." 748 pp. (Stephanidae pp. 471-490).

Marsh, P.M. 1965. The Nearctic Doryctinae, 1.A review of the subfamily with a revision of the tribe Hecabolini (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 58:668-699.

Nixon, G.E.J. 1943. A revision of the Spathiinae of the Old World (Hymenoptera, Braconidae). Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London. 93:173-456.
Nixon, G.E.J. 1954. Two new braconid parasites of wood-boring Coleoptera (Hymenoptera). Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 12(7):380-384.

Quicke, D.L.J. 2015. The Braconid and Ichneumonid Parasitoid Wasps: Biology, Systematics, Evolution and Ecology. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 704 pages.

Quicke, D.L.J. & van Achterberg, C. 1990. Phylogeny of the subfamilies of the family Braconidae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae). Zoologische Verhandelingen, 258, 1–95. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-0031.1992.tb00068.x
Quicke, D.L.J.; Ficken, L. and Fitton, M.G. 1992. New diagnostic ovipositor characters for Doryctine wasps (Hymenoptera, Braconidae). Journal of Natural History. 26:1035-1046.
Quicke, D.L.J.; Palmer-Wilson, J.; Burrough, A. and Broad, G.R. 2004. Discovery of calcium enrichment in cutting teeth of parasitic wasp ovipositors (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonoidea). African Entomology. 12(2):259-264.
Quicke, D.L.J.; Tunstead, J.; Falco, J.V. and Marsh, P.M. 1992. Venom gland and reservoir morphology in the Doryctinae and related braconid wasps (Insecta, Hymenoptera, Braconidae). Zoologica Scripta. 21:403-416.
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Roman, A. 1914. Philippinische Schlupfwespen aus dem schwedischen Reichsmuseum 2. Arkiv for Zoologi 8(24): 1-22.

Roman, A. 1924. Wissenshaftliche Ergebnisse der schwedischen entomologischen Reise des Herrn Dr. A. Roman in Amazonas 1914–15, 10. Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Cyclostomi prop. Arkiv for Zoologi 16(20): 1–40.

Sharkey, M.J. 1993. Family Braconidae (pp. 362-395). In GOULET, H. & HUBER, J. (eds). Hymenoptera of the World: an identification guide to families. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, Ottawa, Canada, 668 pp.

Sharkey, M.J. and Braet, Y. 2012. New species of the rare genera Dentigaster Zettel, 1990 (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Cheloninae) and Minanaga Cameron, 1906 (Sigalphinae) from French Guiana. Journal of Hymenoptera Research. 25: 93-102.

Schletterer, A. 1890. Die Hymenopteren-Gattungen Stenophasmus Smith, Monomachus Westw., Pelecinus Latr. und Megalyra Westw. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift. 33(1889):197-250.
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Szépligeti, G. 1901. Tropischen Cenocoeliden und Braconiden aus der Sammlung des Ungarischen National-Museums. Természetrajzi Füzetek 24: 353-402.

Szépligeti, G. 1904. Hymenoptera. Fam. Braconidae. Genera Insectorum. 22: 1-253.

Szépligeti, G. 1905. Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Insektenfauna von Kamerun. 29. Braconidae. Arkiv foer Zoologi 2(14): 1-11.

Szépligeti, G. 1906. Braconiden aus der Sammlung des ungarischen National-Museums, 1. Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici 4: 47-618. 
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Szépligeti, G. 1913. Braconidae gesammelt von Prof. F. Silvestri in Afrika. Bollettino del Laboratorio di Zoologia Generale e Agraria, Portici. 7:101-104.

Szépligeti, G. 1913. Neue afrikanische Braconiden aus der Sammlung der Ungarischen National-Museum. Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici. 11:592-608.  
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Szépligeti, G.V. 1914. Central-Afrikanische Braconidae des Congo-Museums. Revue de Zoologie Africaine. 3: 403-420.

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Photographs © Simon van Noort (Iziko Museums of South Africa) or Yves Braet or Mike Sharkey (University of Kentucky) or © Kees van Achterberg (Netherlands Centre for Biodiversity Naturalis, Leiden) or Pascal Rousse (Iziko South African Museum) or by Agničle Touret-Alby © MNHN, Visit the MNHN database http://coldb.mnhn.fr

Web author Simon van Noort (Iziko South African Museum)


Citation: van Noort, S. 2024. WaspWeb: Hymenoptera of the World. URL: www.waspweb.org (accessed on <day/month/year>).

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