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Afrotropical Chrysidoidea


(Life: Kingdom: Metazoa (animals); Phylum: Arthropoda; Class: Hexapoda; Order: Hymenoptera)


Identification keys





Parasitoids of Coleoptera and Lepidoptera larva in concealed situations (underneath bark or in soil); cleptoparasites in nests of other wasps and bees; parasitoids of stick insect eggs (Phasmatodea); external parasitoids of leaf hoppers (Cicadellidae).


Estimated 16 000 species 70% of which are undescribed.


Aguiar AP, Deans AR, Engel MS, Forshage M, Huber JT, Jennings JT, Johnson NF, Lelej AS, Longino JT, Lohrmann V, Miko I. 2013. Order Hymenoptera. In: Zhang, Z.-Q.(Ed.) Animal Biodiversity: An Outline of Higher-level Classification and Survey of Taxonomic Richness (Addenda 2013). Zootaxa 3703: 51-62. http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3703.1.12

Azevedo, C.O. 1999. A Key to World Species of Scolebythidae (Hymenoptera: Chrysidoidea), with Description of a New Species of Dominibythus from Brazil. Journal of Hymenoptera Research 8 (1): 1-5.

Azevedo CO, Alencar IDCCA, Ramos MS, Barbosa DN, Colombo WD, Vargas JMR, Lim J. 2018. Global guide of the flat wasps (Hymenoptera, Bethylidae). Zootaxa 4489:1–294. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4489.1.1
Branstetter MG, Childers AK, Cox-Foster D, Hopper KR, Kapheim KM, Toth AL, Worley KC. 2018. Genomes of the Hymenoptera. Current Opinion in Insect Science 25: 65-75. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cois.2017.11.008

Brothers, D.J. 1974. The genera of Plumariidae, with description of a new genus and species from Argentina (Hymenoptera: Bethyloidea). Journal of the entomological Society of southern Africa 37: 351–356.

Brothers D.J. 1981. Note on the biology of Ycaploca evansi (Hymenoptera: Scolebythidae). Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa 44: 107 - 108.
Brothers, D.J. 2011.
A new Late Cretaceous family of Hymenoptera, and phylogeny of the Plumariidae and Chrysidoidea (Aculeata). In: Shcherbakov, D.E., Engel, M.S., Sharkey, M.J. (Eds) Advances in the Systematics of Fossil and Modern Insects: Honouring Alexandr Rasnitsyn. ZooKeys 130: 515–542. doi:10.3897/zookeys.130.1591

Brues, C.T. 1924. Some South African parasitic Hymenoptera of the families Evaniidae, Braconidae, Alysiidae, and Plumariidae in the South African Museum with a catalogue of the known species. Annals of the South African Museum 19: 1-150.

Day, M.C. 1977. A new genus of Plumariidae from southern Africa, with notes on Scolebythidae (Hymenoptera: Chrysidoidea). Cimbebasia 4: 171-177.

Debevec AH, Cardinal S, Danforth BN. 2012. Identifying the sister group to the bees: a molecular phylogeny of Aculeata with an emphasis on the superfamily Apoidea. Zoologica scripta 41: 527-35. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1463-6409.2012.00549.x

Enderlein, G. 1918. Hymenoptera II: Archihymenidae. Beitr. Landf. Süd-Westafrik. 1: 193–199.

Engel, M. & Grimaldi, D.A. 2006. Cretaceous Scolebythidae and phylogeny of the family (Hymenoptera; Chrysidoidea). American Museum Novitates 3568: 16 pp.
Evans, H.E. 1963.
A new family of wasps. Psyche 70 (1): 7-16, pl. 2.

Evans, H.E. 1966. Discovery of the female Plumarius (Hymenoptera, Plumariidae). Psyche 73, 229–237.

Evans, H.E., Kugler, C. & Brown, W.L. Jr. 1979. Rediscovery of Scolebythus madecassus, with description of the male and of the female sting apparatus (Hymenoptera: Scolebythidae). Psyche 86 (1): 45-51.

Finnamore, A.T. & Brothers, D.J. 1993. Superfamily Chrysidoidea (pp. 130-160). In GOULET, H. & HUBER, J. (eds). Hymenoptera of the World: an identification guide to families. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, Ottawa, Canada, 668 pp.

Johnson BR, Borowiec ML, Chiu JC, Lee EK, Atallah J, Ward PS. 2013. Phylogenomics resolves evolutionary relationships among ants, bees, and wasps. Current Biology 23: 2058–2062. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2013.08.050

Nagy, C.G. 1975. A new genus of Scolebythidae (Hymenoptera) from South Africa and Australia. J. Ent. Soc. S. Africa 38: 75-78.

Olmi, M., Copeland, R.S. & van Noort, S. 2019. Dryinidae of the Afrotropical region (Hymenoptera: Chrysidoidea). Zootaxa 4630: 1–619. http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4630.1.1

Peters RS, Krogmann L, Mayer C, Donath A, Gunkel S, Meusemann K, Kozlov A, Podsiadlowski L, Petersen M, Lanfear R, Diez PA. 2017. Evolutionary history of the Hymenoptera. Current Biology 27:1013-1018. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2017.01.027

Roig-Alsina, A. 1994. A new genus of Plumariidae, with notes on the relationships among the genera of the family. Mitteilungen der Münchener entomologisches Geselschaft, 84, 91–96.

Sharkey, M., 2007. Phylogeny and classification of Hymenoptera. Zootaxa 1668: 521–548.

Sharkey, M. J., Carpenter, J. M., Vilhelmsen, L., Heraty, J., Liljeblad, J., Dowling, A. P.G., Schulmeister, S., Murray, D., Deans, A. R., Ronquist, F., Krogmann, L. and Wheeler, W. C. 2012. Phylogenetic relationships among superfamilies of Hymenoptera. Cladistics 28: 80–112. doi: 10.1111/j.1096-0031.2011.00366.x

Sorg, M. 1988. Zur Phylogenie und Systematik der Bethylidae (Insecta: Hymenoptera, Chrysidoidea). Geologisches Instititut der Universität zu Köln Sonderveröffentlichungen 63: 146 pp.

Terayama, M. 2006. Bethylidae (Hymenoptera). In: Insects of Japan. 1-317pp. Edited by the Entomological Society of Japan. Fukuoka, Japan: Touka Shoboo Co. Ltd.


Photographs © Simon van Noort (Iziko Museums of South Africa). Dryinidae image © Vida van der Walt (Pretoria).

Web author Simon van Noort (Iziko South African Museum)


Citation: van Noort, S. 2024. WaspWeb: Hymenoptera of the World. URL: www.waspweb.org (accessed on <day/month/year>).

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