HomeWasp classificationExpeditionsLinksFigWebBiodiversity ExplorerPermits


Membrane bees, Plasterer bees, Masked bees of the Afrotropical Region

(Life: Kingdom: Metazoa (animals); Phylum: Arthropoda; Class: Hexapoda; Order: Hymenoptera; Superfamily: Apoidea)




Worldwide, with greatest diversity in the Australasian region.


Many species in the Hylaeinae provision the nest with liquid or semi-liquid pollen that has been carried in the crop rather than being collected into an external pollen carrying apparatus (scopa) that these bees lack. Most species of Colletinae collect pollen into an external pollen carrying apparatus (scopa).


Brothers D.J. 1999. Phylogeny and evolution of wasps, ants and bees (Hymenoptera, Chrysidoidea, Vespoidea and Apoidea) Zoologica Scripta 28: 233250.

Cockerell TDA. 1942. Bees of the family Hylaeidae from the Ethiopian Region. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 101: 115.

Dathe HH. 2014. Studies on the systematics and taxonomy of the genus Hylaeus F. (8). Revision of the Afrotropic subgenus Hylaeus (Deranchylaeus) Bridwell (Hymenoptera: Anthophila, Colletidae). Zootaxa 3874 (1): 184.

Dathe HH. 2015. Studies on the systematics and taxonomy of the genus Hylaeus F. (9)
Supplement to the taxonomy and distribution of Afrotropical Hylaeus F. species (Hymenoptera: Anthophila, Colletidae). Contributions to Entomology 65 (1): 9 26.

Davies, G.B.P. & Brothers D.J. 2006. Morphology of Scrapter (Hymenoptera: Anthophila: Colletidae), with description of three new species and taxonomic status of five Cockerell taxa. African Invertebrates 47: 135-183.
Davies, G.B.P., Eardley C.D. & Brothers D.J. 2006. Eight new species of Scrapter
(Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Colletidae), with descriptions of S. albifumus and S. amplispinatus females and a major range extension of the genus. African Invertebrates 46: 141-179.

Eardley, C.D. 1996. The genus Scrapter Lepeletier and Serville (Hymenoptera: Colletidae).
African Entomology 4: 37-92.

Eardley, C & Urban, R. 2010. Catalogue of Afrotropical bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Apiformes). Zootaxa 2455: 1-548.

Eardley, C, Finnamore, A.T. & Michener, C.D. 1993. Superfamily Apoidea (pp. 279-357). In GOULET, H. & HUBER, J. (eds). Hymenoptera of the World: an identification guide to families. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, Ottawa, Canada, 668 pp.

Eardley C.,Kuhlmann M., Pauly A. 2010. The Bee Genera and Subgenera of sub-Saharan Africa. Abc Taxa vol 7: i-vi, 138 pp.

Gess, S.K. & Gess, F.W. 2014. Wasps and bees in southern Africa. SANBI Biodiversity Series 24. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria. 320 pp.

Kuhlmann, M. & Friehs T. 2020. Nine new species and new records of euryglossiform Scrapter Lepeletier & Serville (Hymenoptera: Colletidae) from South Africa. European Journal of Taxonomy 647: 1-33. https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2020.647

Michener, C.D. 2000. The Bees of the World. Johns Hopkins University Press. 953 pp.

Sharkey, M., 2007. Phylogeny and classification of Hymenoptera. Zootaxa 1668: 521548.

Sharkey, M. J., Carpenter, J. M., Vilhelmsen, L., Heraty, J., Liljeblad, J., Dowling, A. P.G., Schulmeister, S., Murray, D., Deans, A. R., Ronquist, F., Krogmann, L. and Wheeler, W. C. 2012. Phylogenetic relationships among superfamilies of Hymenoptera. Cladistics 28: 80112. doi: 10.1111/j.1096-0031.2011.00366.x

Snelling, R.R. 1985. The systematics of the hylaeine bees (Hymenoptera:
Colletidae) of the Ethiopian zoogeographical region: The genera and subgenera
with revisions of the smaller groups. Contributions in Science, Natural History
Museum of Los Angeles County
361: 1-33.


Photographs Laurence Packer's website: Bee Tribes of the World or

Photographs Simon van Noort (Iziko Museums of South Africa).

Web author Simon van Noort (Iziko South African Museum)


Citation: van Noort, S. 2024. WaspWeb: Hymenoptera of the World. URL: www.waspweb.org (accessed on <day/month/year>).

Copyright 2004-2024 Iziko Museums of South Africa

customisable counter