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Afrotropical Trigonaloidea

(Life: Kingdom: Metazoa (animals); Phylum: Arthropoda; Class: Hexapoda; Order: Hymenoptera)

Classification

Trigonalidae

Distribution

Worldwide, most species rare.

Biology

Hyperparasitoids of Lepidoptera and Symphyta caterpillars. Thousands of tough, minute eggs are laid on leaves, which are then eaten by caterpillars. The trigonalid larvae hatch inside the caterpillar and either consume any parasitoid larvae that are already there or wait until the caterpillar is parasitized and then consume the parasitoid without eating the primary host.

References

Benoit, P.L.G. 1951. La systematique des Trigonalidae (Hym.) ethiopiens. Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaines 44: 141-147.

Carmean, D. & Kimsey, L. 1998. Phylogenetic revision of the parasitoid wasp family Trigonalidae (Hymenoptera).  Systematic Entomology 23: 35-76.

Mason, W.R.M. 1993. Superfamilies Evanioidea, Stephanoidea, Megalyroidea and Trigonalyoidea (pp. 510-520). In GOULET, H. & HUBER, J. (eds). Hymenoptera of the World: an identification guide to families. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, Ottawa, Canada, 668 pp.

Sharkey, M., 2007. Phylogeny and classification of Hymenoptera. Zootaxa 1668: 521548.

Sharkey, M. J., Carpenter, J. M., Vilhelmsen, L., Heraty, J., Liljeblad, J., Dowling, A. P.G., Schulmeister, S., Murray, D., Deans, A. R., Ronquist, F., Krogmann, L. and Wheeler, W. C. 2012. Phylogenetic relationships among superfamilies of Hymenoptera. Cladistics 28: 80112. doi: 10.1111/j.1096-0031.2011.00366.x

Smith, D.R. & Tripotin, P. 2012. Trigonalidae (Hymenoptera) of Madagascar. Journal of Hymenoptera Research 24: 125. doi: 10.3897/JHR.24.1811

Weinsten, P. & Austin, A.D. 1991. The host relationships of trigonalyid wasps (Hymenoptera: Trigonalyidae), with a review of their biology and catalogue to world species. Journal of Natural History 25: 399-433.

Credits

Photographs Simon van Noort (Iziko Museums of South Africa)


Web author Simon van Noort (Iziko South African Museum)

 

Citation: van Noort, S. 2017. WaspWeb: Hymenoptera of the Afrotropical region. URL: www.waspweb.org (accessed on <day/month/year>).

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