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Ichneumonidae_Vida_van_der_Walt

Afrotropical Ichneumonoidea

(Life: Kingdom: Metazoa (animals); Phylum: Arthropoda; Class: Hexapoda; Order: Hymenoptera)

Braconidae

Ichneumonidae

Distribution

Worldwide.

Biology

Koinobiont or idiobiont endoparasitoids or ectoparasitoids of insects (Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Rhaphidioptera, Trichoptera, Orthoptera, Psocoptera, Diptera, Isoptera, Embioptera, Neuroptera) or Chelcerata (Araneae and Pseudoscorpionida).

References

Quicke, D. L. 2014. The Braconid and Ichneumonid Parasitoid Wasps: Biology, Systematics, Evolution and Ecology. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 704 pages.

Quicke, D.L.J. & van Achterberg, C. 1990. Phylogeny of the subfamilies of the family Braconidae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae). Zoologische Verhandelingen, 258, 195. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-0031.1992.tb00068.x

Quicke, D.L.J., Laurenne, N.M., Fitton, M.G. & Broad, G.R. 2009. A thousand and one wasps: a 28S rDNA and morphological phylogeny of the Ichneumonidae (Insecta: Hymenoptera) with an investigation into alignment parameter space and elision. Journal of Natural History, 43: 13051421.http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00222930902807783

Sharkey, M.J. 1993. Family Braconidae (pp. 362-395). In GOULET, H. & HUBER, J. (eds). Hymenoptera of the World: an identification guide to families. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, Ottawa, Canada, 668 pp.

Sharkey, M., 2007. Phylogeny and classification of Hymenoptera.
Zootaxa 1668: 521548.

Sharkey, M. J., Carpenter, J. M., Vilhelmsen, L., Heraty, J., Liljeblad, J., Dowling, A. P.G., Schulmeister, S., Murray, D., Deans, A. R., Ronquist, F., Krogmann, L. and Wheeler, W. C. 2012. Phylogenetic relationships among superfamilies of Hymenoptera. Cladistics 28: 80112. doi: 10.1111/j.1096-0031.2011.00366.x

Wahl, D.B. 1993. Family ichneumonidae (pp. 395-448). In GOULET, H. & HUBER, J. (eds). Hymenoptera of the World: an identification guide to families. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, Ottawa, Canada, 668 pp.

Yu D.S., van Achterberg, K., Horstmann, K. 2011. World Ichneumonoidea 2011. Taxonomy, biology, morphology and distribution. Available from Vancouver, Canada: Taxapad. www.taxapad.com

Credits

Photographs Simon van Noort (Iziko Museums of South Africa). Banner image Vida van der Walt (Pretoria).


Web author Simon van Noort (Iziko South African Museum)

 

Citation: van Noort, S. 2017. WaspWeb: Hymenoptera of the Afrotropical region. URL: www.waspweb.org (accessed on <day/month/year>).

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