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Key to species of Afrotropical Phorotrophus

(Life: Kingdom: Metazoa (animals); Phylum: Arthropoda; Class: Hexapoda; Order: Hymenoptera;  Superfamily: Ichneumonoidea; Family: Ichneumonidae; Subfamily: Acaenitinae)

ClassificationIdentification keys


1 Occipital carina long, reaching vertex level or above (A) ... 2

 

- Occipital carina short, at most reaching mid-height of eye (a) ... 14

 


2(1) Scuto-scutellar groove almost smooth, at most with faint incomplete crenulations (A); hind wing with 1/Cu&cu-a intercepted far below middle (NI > 1.6) (B) ... Phorotrophus congoensis Benoit

 

- Scuto-scutellar groove distinctly crenulate (a); hind wing with 1/Cu&cu-a intercepted higher (NI < 1.6) (b) ... 3

 


3(2) hind wing with 1/Cu&cu-a intercepted far above middle (NI < 0.6) (A) ... 4

 

- Hind wing with 1/Cu&cu-a intercepted around middle (NI > 0.6) (a) ... 5

 


4(3) Head and mesosoma yellow, metasoma orange, wings hyaline (A); Madagascar ... Phorotrophus tricolor Seyrig

 

- Body almost entirely black, wings strongly infuscate (a); South Africa ... Phorotrophus malaisei Benoit

 


5(3) Mesosoma, and often remainder of body, mostly black ... 6

 

- Body mostly yellow to reddish orange, at most with isolated black markings ... 7


6(5) Wings strongly infuscate except for a subapical stripe on fore wing; 2m-cu basal to rs-m (A); Western Africa (Sierra Leone) ... Phorotrophus pulcher (Szépligeti)

 

- Wings hyaline, apically infuscate; 2m-cu apical to rs-m (a); Central Africa ... Phorotrophus perplexus Benoit

 


7(6) Apical transverse carina of propodeum present and strongly medially incurved, almost reaching anterior third of propodeum; central median area of propodeum defined and medially subdivided (A); mainland Africa ... Phorotrophus kaluleus Benoit

 

- Apical transverse carina of propodeum, if present gently medially incurved, reaching at most anterior half of propodeum (a); central median area of propodeum usually not defined (b), if present not subdivided (a); Madagascar ... 8

 


8(7) Wings yellowish with apex strongly infuscate (A) ... 9

 

- Wings hyaline with apex at most moderately infuscate (a) ... 10

 


9(8) Vein 2m-cu distinctly apical to rs-m (A); ovipositor very long (OT > 3) (B) ... Phorotrophus radialis (Seyrig)

 

- Vein 2m-cu opposite to rs-m (a); ovipositor shorter (OT < 3) (b) ... Phorotrophus magnificus (Seyrig)

 


10(8) Head distinctly lighter than remainder of body (A); flagellum bicoloured, basally black and apically pale yellow (A); ventral swelling of sternite 1 strong, basally abruptly truncate (B) ... Phorotrophus thouvenoti (Seyrig)

 

- Head and remainder of body uniformly coloured (a); flagellum variable; ventral swelling variable (b), but if strong then regularly pyramoidal (c) ... 11

 


11(10) Orange overall (A) without black markings on mesosoma (B); flagellum bicoloured, basally black and apically orange (A); subapical ridge of clypeus evenly concave (C) ... Phorotrophus youpi Macquart, Rousse & van Noort

 

- Bright yellow overall (a) with mesoscutal lobes more or less black maculated (b); flagellum entirely black with basal flagellomeres fading to yellow (a); subapical ridge of clypeus subtruncate (c) ... 12

 


12(11) Ventral swelling on sternite 1 weak (A); propodeum with central median area defined (B); ventral margin of clypeus with a median tooth (C) ... Phorotrophus trilobus Saussure

 

- Ventral swelling stronger (a); propodeum without distinct central area (b); ventral margin of clypeus evenly concave, without median tooth (c) ... 13

 


13(12) Fore wing with bullae on 2m-cu small, separated by 4–5x their own length (A); ovipositor long (OT > 1.8) (B) ... Phorotrophus maculiceps (Seyrig)

 

- Fore wing with bullae on 2m-cu nearly fused (a); ovipositor moderately long (OT < 1.8) (b) ... Phorotrophus hastatus (Seyrig)

 


14(1) Scuto-scutellar groove almost smooth, at most with faint incomplete crenulations (A, B) ... 15

 

- Scuto-scutellar groove distinctly crenulate (a, b) ... 21

 


15(14) Most of mesosoma and metasoma black (A, B) ... 16

 

- Most of mesosoma and metasoma yellow to orange (a), at most with isolated black markings (b) ... 17


16(15) Body black with red markings, wings hyaline (A); face and clypeus punctate, without transverse sculpture (B); South Africa ... Phorotrophus hephaistosi Macquart, Rousse & van Noort

 

- Body black with pale yellow markings, wings infuscate (a); face and clypeus with coarse transverse striations (b); Central Africa (Uganda) ... Phorotrophus cyranodebergeraci Macquart, Rousse & van Noort

 


17(16) Propodeum quite smooth, without any carination (A) ... Phorotrophus acarinatus Benoit

 

- Propodeum more or less sculptured with carination present (a) ... 18

 


18(17) Hind wing with 1/Cu&cu-a intercepted distinctly above middle (NI ≤ 0.8) (A)... 19

 

- Hind wing with 1/Cu&cu-a intercepted lower (NI > 0.8) (a) ... 20

 


19(18) Frons medially nearly smooth (A); basal median area of propodeum wider than long (B); entirely yellow, without black markings (C) ... Phorotrophus flavus (Roman)

 

- Frons medially transversely strigose (a); basal median area of propodeum longer than wide (b); yellow to yellowish orange with dorsal and often ventral large black markings (c) ... Phorotrophus bivittatus (Morley)

 


20(18) Body orange without black markings, wings slightly yellowish (A); mid-longitudinal carina on face extending to ventral margin of clypeus (B); ovipositor very long (OT > 2.5) (A) ... Phorotrophus fernando Macquart, Rousse & van Noort

 

- Body bright yellow, always with black markings of variable extent, wings hyaline (a); mid-longitudinal carina on face not reaching dorsal margin of clypeus (b); ovipositor shorter (OT < 2.5) (a) ... Phorotrophus mameti Benoit

 


21(14) Subapical ridge of clypeus sharp and evenly concave to convex, distinctly overhanging the mid-apical tooth of clypeus (A) ... 22

 

- Subapical ridge blunt and faint to moderately sharp, always irregularly shaped or sinuate and including the mid-apical tooth of clypeus if present (a) ... 25

 


22(21) Mesosoma totally black (A,B) ... 23

 

- Mesosoma mostly yellow to orange, dorsally with isolated black markings (a,b) ... 24

 


23(22) Subapical margin truncate (A); metasoma mostly yellowish orange with apical black markings (B); southern Africa ... Phorotrophus zoutpanbergensis Macquart, Rousse & van Noort

 

- Subapical margin evenly convex (a); metasoma entirely black (b); tropical Africa ... Phorotrophus schoutedeni Benoit

 


24(22) Mesoscutum almost totally smooth (A); wings strongly infuscate (B); South Africa ... Phorotrophus vulcani Macquart, Rousse & van Noort

 

- Mesoscutum densely punctate (a); wings hyaline, apically more or less infuscate (b); widespread ... Phorotrophus alcides (Wilkinson)

 


25(21) Wings strongly infuscate (A), most of body black (B) ... 26

 

- Wings hyaline to weakly yellowish (a, b), most of body usually yellow (a) though sometimes largely black (b) ... 27

 


26(25) Propodeum rugose reticulate with basal median area defined (A); fore wing with 2m-cu distinctly apical to rs-m (IC > 0.1), hind wing with 1/Cu&cu-a intercepted far above middle (NI < 0.8) (B); South Africa ... Phorotrophus ater (Tosquinet)

 

- Propodeum almost smooth without any median area defined (a); fore wing with 2m-cu subopposite to rs-m (IC < 0.1), hind wing with 1/Cu&cu-a intercepted below middle (NI > 0.8) (b); tropical Africa ... Phorotrophus tosquineti (Benoit)

 


27(25) Occipital carina nearly absent (A); propodeal carination reduced with only basal transverse carina and a long but variously distinct mid-longitudinal carina present, median basal area not defined (B); tropical Africa ... Phorotrophus mangbetuorum Benoit

 

- Occipital carina extending to at lest lower quarter of eye height (a); propodeal carination more extended with median basal area defined, never with a long mid-longitudinal carina (b) ... 28

 


28(27) Fore wing with 2m-cu opposite or subopposite to rs-m (IC < 0.1) (A); body mostly black, ovipositor very long (B); tropical Africa ... Phorotrophus problematicus Macquart, Rousse & van Noort

 

- Fore wing with 2m-cu shortly to strongly apical to rs-m (IC > 0.1) (a); body usually mostly yellow, ovipositor shorter (OT < 2.5) (b) ... 29

 


29 (28) Hind wing with 1/Cu&cu-a intercepted far below middle (NI > 2.0) (A); tropical Africa ... Phorotrophus solitarius Benoit

 

- Hind wing with 1/Cu&cu-a intercepted about or above middle (NI < 2.0) (a) … 30


30(29) Hind wing with 1/Cu&cu-a intercepted far above middle (NI < 0.6) (A); tropical Africa ... 31

 

- Hind wing with 1/Cu&cu-a intercepted moderately above to moderately below middle (NI 0.6–2.0) (a) ... 32


31(30) Subapical ridge of clypeus moderate (A); subocular sulcus deep (A); antenna of 26 flagellomeres without white rings (B) ... Phorotrophus stictor Benoit

 

- Subapical ridge of clypeus hardly distinct (a); subocular groove shallow (a); antenna of 21 flagellomeres with numerous white rings in apical half (b) ... Phorotrophus frodoni Macquart, Rousse & van Noort


32(30) Metapleuron mostly smooth (A); propodeum with basal median area about twice as long as wide (B); tropical Africa ... Phorotrophus ealensis Benoit

 

- Metapleuron distinctly sculptured (a); propodeum with basal median area at most barely longer than wide (b); South Africa ... Phorotrophus capensis (Holmgren)

 


Reference

Maquart, P.O., Rousse, P. & van Noort, S. 2014.  Revision of the Afrotropical genus Phorotrophus Saussure, 1892 (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Acaenitinae), with description of eight new species. African Natural History 10: 57-117.

Credits

Photographs © Simon van Noort or Pascal Rousse (Iziko South African Museum).

Web author Simon van Noort (Iziko South African Museum)

 

Citation: van Noort, S. 2022. WaspWeb: Hymenoptera of the Afrotropical region. URL: www.waspweb.org (accessed on <day/month/year>).

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