HomeWasp classificationExpeditionsLinksFigWebBiodiversity ExplorerPermits

Phanacis_SAM-HYM-P043561_female_body_lateral

Phanacidini

Gall wasps

(Life: Kingdom: Metazoa (animals); Phylum: Arthropoda; Class: Hexapoda; Order: Hymenoptera; Superfamily: Cynipoidea; Family: Cynipidae; Subfamily: Cynipinae)

ClassificationCynipoidea keys

  Asiocynips Kovalev, 1982(Palaearctic)
  Diakontschukia Melika 2006 (Palaearctic)
Phanacis Förster, 1860 (Afrotropical, Palaearctic, introduced Australasian, Nearctic)
  Zerovia Dyakontshuk, 1988 (Palaearctic)
Distribution Predominately the Palaearctic Region, most species in arid Southwest & central Asia. Also Afrotropical region: Kenya and South Africa; intentionally introduced into Australia and South Africa for weed biological control.
Biology Herbivores that induce galls on plants. Mostly stem gall inducers on Asteraceae, with a few species on Lamiaceae and Apiaceae.

References

Liljeblad, J., Nieves-Aldrey, J.L., Neser, S. & Melika, G. 2011. Adding another piece to the cynipoid puzzle: the description of a new tribe, genus and species of gall wasp (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) endemic to The Republic of South Africa. Zootaxa 2806: 35–52.
Mayr, G. 1881. Die genera der gallenbewohnenden Cynipiden. Jahresberichte der Rossauer Communal Oberrealschule im I. Bezirke 20:138.

Ritchie, A.J. 1993. Superfamily Cynipoidea (pp. 521-536). In GOULET, H. & HUBER, J. (eds). Hymenoptera of the World: an identification guide to families. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, Ottawa, Canada, 668 pp.

Ronquist, F. 1999. Phylogeny, classification and evolution of the Cynipoidea. Zoologica Scripta 28:139–164.

Ronquist, F. & Liljeblad, J. 2001. Evolution of the gall wasp–host plant association. Evolution 55: 2503–2522.

Ronquist, F., Nieves-Aldrey, J.-L., Buffington, M. L., Liu, Z., Liljeblad, J., & Nylander, J. A. A. 2015. Phylogeny, Evolution and Classification of Gall Wasps: The Plot Thickens. PLoS ONE, 10(5), e0123301. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0123301

van Noort, S, Buffington ML & Forshage, M. 2015. Afrotropical Cynipoidea (Hymenoptera). ZooKeys 493: 1-176. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.493.6353

van Noort, S., Stone, G.N., Whitehead, V.B. & Nieves-Aldrey, J.L.  2007. Biology of Rhoophilus loewi (Hymenoptera: Cynipoidea: Cynipidae), with implications for the evolution of inquilinism in gall wasps. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 90: 153-172. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8312.2007.00719.x

Credits

Photographs © Simon van Noort (Iziko Museums of South Africa).

Matt Buffington (Systematic Entomology Laboratory, USDA/ARS) and Mattias Forshage (Swedish Museum of Natural History) both played an integral role in the development of the Cynipoidea pages.


Web author Simon van Noort (Iziko South African Museum)

 

Citation: van Noort, S. 2022. WaspWeb: Hymenoptera of the Afrotropical region. URL: www.waspweb.org (accessed on <day/month/year>).

Copyright 2004-2022 Iziko Museums of South Africa

customisable counter