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Gall wasps

(Life: Kingdom: Metazoa (animals); Phylum: Arthropoda; Class: Hexapoda; Order: Hymenoptera; Superfamily: Cynipoidea; Family: Cynipidae; Subfamily: Cynipinae)

Aulacideini Nieves-Aldrey, Nylander & Ronquist, 2015

ClassificationCynipoidea keys

Antistrophus Walsh,1869; 10 species NA
Aulacidea Ashmead, 1897; 38 species PA, NA

Cecconia Kieffer, 1902; 1 species wPA

Hedickiana Nieves-Aldrey, 1994; 1 species wPA

Isocolus Förster, 1869; 26 species PA

Liposthenes Förster, 1869; 3 species PA, introduced NA

Neaylax Nieves-Aldrey, 1994; 4 species PA

Panteliella Kieffer, 1902; 3 species PA

Rhodus Quinlan, 1968; 1 species wPA
Distribution Holarctic region.
Biology Gall inducers on various herbaceous plants in Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, Valerianaceae and some Papaveraceae (Ronquist et al., 2015). Aulacidea subterminalis has been used in the biological control of invasive weeds in North America (APHIS, 2011) and New Zealand (Klöppel et al., 2003; Syrett et al., 2001).


Bassett, H. F. 1881. New Species of Cynipidae. The Canadian Entomologist. 13: 51–53. doi:10.4039/Ent1351-3

Buffington ML, Forshage M, Liljeblad J, Tang CT, van Noort, S. 2020. World Cynipoidea (Hymenoptera):a key to higher-level groups. Insect Systematics and Diversity 4(4): 1–69. https://doi.org/10.1093/isd/ixaa003

Burks, B.D. 1979. Superfamily Cynipoidea, pp. 1045- 1107. In K. V. Krombein, P. D. Hurd, Jr., D. R. Smith, and B. D. Burks (eds), Catalog of Hymenoptera in America North of Mexico. Volume 1, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC.

Gillette, C.P. 1891. Descriptions of new Cynipidae in the collection of the Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History. Bulletin of the Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History 3: 191-197.

Klöppel M, Smith L, Syrett P. 2003. Predicting the impact of the biocontrol agent Aulacidea subterminalis (Cynipidae) on growth of Hieracium pilosella (Asteraceae) under differing environmental conditions in New Zealand. Biocontrol Science and Technology, 13: 207-218. https://doi.org/10.1080/0958315021000073478

Mayr, G. 1881. Die genera der gallenbewohnenden Cynipiden. Jahresberichte der Rossauer Communal Oberrealschule im I. Bezirke 20:138.

Ritchie, A.J. 1993. Superfamily Cynipoidea (pp. 521-536). In GOULET, H. & HUBER, J. (eds). Hymenoptera of the World: an identification guide to families. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, Ottawa, Canada, 668 pp.

Ronquist, F. 1999. Phylogeny, classification and evolution of the Cynipoidea. Zoologica Scripta 28:139–164.

Ronquist, F. & Liljeblad, J. 2001. Evolution of the gall wasp–host plant association. Evolution 55: 2503–2522.

Ronquist, F., Nieves-Aldrey, J.-L., Buffington, M. L., Liu, Z., Liljeblad, J., & Nylander, J. A. A. 2015. Phylogeny, Evolution and Classification of Gall Wasps: The Plot Thickens. PLoS ONE, 10(5), e0123301. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0123301

Syrett, P., L. Smith, G. Grosskopf, and C. Meurk. 2001. Predicting the likely success of biocontrol of hawkweeds in New Zealand. Plant Prot. Quar. 16: 172–176.

Tooker, J, Deans, A, Hanks, L. 2004. Description of the Antistrophus rufus (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) species complex, including two new species. Journal of Hymenoptera Research 13: 125-133.

van Noort, S, Buffington ML & Forshage, M. 2015. Afrotropical Cynipoidea (Hymenoptera). ZooKeys 493: 1-176. http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.493.6353

Ward, D. 2014. Overview and key to the New Zealand Cynipoidea (Hymenoptera). Zootaxa. 3878. 563-579. http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3878.6.4 


Photographs © Matt Buffington (Systematic Entomology Laboratory, USDA/ARS).

Web author Simon van Noort (Iziko South African Museum)


Citation: van Noort, S. 2022. WaspWeb: Hymenoptera of the Afrotropical region. URL: www.waspweb.org (accessed on <day/month/year>).

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