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Aulacidea subterminalis Niblett

Hieracium Gall wasp

(Life: Kingdom: Metazoa (animals); Phylum: Arthropoda; Class: Hexapoda; Order: Hymenoptera; Superfamily: Cynipoidea; Family: Cynipidae; Subfamily: Cynipinae; Tribe: Aulacideini; Genus: Aulacidea)

Aulacidea subterminalis Niblett, 1946.

ClassificationCynipoidea keys

Photograph © Darren Ward (New Zealand Arthropod Collection on Flickr NZAC04086164).

Aulacidea subterminalis female ovipositing into Hieracium stolon. Photograph © Robert Lamberts (Landcare Research Manaaki Whenua, New Zealand).

Galled stolon on Hieracium. Photograph © Robert Lamberts (Landcare Research Manaaki Whenua, New Zealand).

Galled stolons on Hieracium. Photograph © Robert Lamberts (Landcare Research Manaaki Whenua,  New Zealand).

Distribution Palaearctic, introduced to Australasian (New Zealand) and Nearctic (USA) regions.
Biology Gall inducers on the stolons of various species of invasive Hawkweeds (Hieracium species), reducing their ability to spread vegetatively. Daughter plants are usually produced at the tips of stolons (Klöppel et al., 2003; Syrett etal., 2001)

Landcare Research New Zealand fact sheet

USDA fact sheet


Buffington ML, Forshage M, Liljeblad J, Tang CT, van Noort, S. 2020. World Cynipoidea (Hymenoptera):a key to higher-level groups. Insect Systematics and Diversity 4(4): 1–69. https://doi.org/10.1093/isd/ixaa003

Klöppel M, Smith L, Syrett P. 2003. Predicting the impact of the biocontrol agent Aulacidea subterminalis (Cynipidae) on growth of Hieracium pilosella (Asteraceae) under differing environmental conditions in New Zealand. Biocontrol Science and Technology, 13: 207-218. https://doi.org/10.1080/0958315021000073478

Ritchie, A.J. 1993. Superfamily Cynipoidea (pp. 521-536). In GOULET, H. & HUBER, J. (eds). Hymenoptera of the World: an identification guide to families. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, Ottawa, Canada, 668 pp.

Ronquist, F. 1999. Phylogeny, classification and evolution of the Cynipoidea. Zoologica Scripta 28:139–164.

Ronquist, F. & Liljeblad, J. 2001. Evolution of the gall wasp–host plant association. Evolution 55: 2503–2522.

Ronquist, F., Nieves-Aldrey, J.-L., Buffington, M. L., Liu, Z., Liljeblad, J., & Nylander, J. A. A. 2015. Phylogeny, Evolution and Classification of Gall Wasps: The Plot Thickens. PLoS ONE, 10(5), e0123301. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0123301

Syrett, P., L. Smith, G. Grosskopf, and C. Meurk. 2001. Predicting the likely success of biocontrol of hawkweeds in New Zealand. Plant Prot. Quar. 16: 172–176.

Ward, D. 2014. Overview and key to the New Zealand Cynipoidea (Hymenoptera). Zootaxa. 3878. 563-579. http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3878.6.4 


Photographs © Darren Ward (New Zealand Arthropod Collection on Flickr), or photographs © Robert Lamberts (Landcare Research Manaaki Whenua, New Zealand).

Web author Simon van Noort (Iziko South African Museum)


Citation: van Noort, S. 2023. WaspWeb: Hymenoptera of the Afrotropical region. URL: www.waspweb.org (accessed on <day/month/year>).

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