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Afrotropical Chrysidoidea


(Life: Kingdom: Metazoa (animals); Phylum: Arthropoda; Class: Hexapoda; Order: Hymenoptera)


Identification keys





Parasitoids of Coleoptera and Lepidoptera larva in concealed situations (underneath bark or in soil); cleptoparasites in nests of other wasps and bees; parasitoids of stick insect eggs (Phasmatodea); external parasitoids of leaf hoppers (Cicadellidae).


Estimated 16 000 species 70% of which are undescribed.


Azevedo, C.O. 1999. A Key to World Species of Scolebythidae (Hymenoptera: Chrysidoidea), with Description of a New Species of Dominibythus from Brazil. Journal of Hymenoptera Research 8 (1): 1-5.
Brothers, D.J. 1974
. The genera of Plumariidae, with description of a new genus and species from Argentina (Hymenoptera: Bethyloidea). Journal of the entomological Society of southern Africa 37: 351–356.

Brothers D.J. 1981. Note on the biology of Ycaploca evansi (Hymenoptera: Scolebythidae). Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa 44: 107 - 108.
Brothers, D.J. 2011.
A new Late Cretaceous family of Hymenoptera, and phylogeny of the Plumariidae and Chrysidoidea (Aculeata). In: Shcherbakov, D.E., Engel, M.S., Sharkey, M.J. (Eds) Advances in the Systematics of Fossil and Modern Insects: Honouring Alexandr Rasnitsyn. ZooKeys 130: 515–542. doi:10.3897/zookeys.130.1591

Brues, C.T. 1924. Some South African parasitic Hymenoptera of the families Evaniidae, Braconidae, Alysiidae, and Plumariidae in the South African Museum with a catalogue of the known species. Annals of the South African Museum 19: 1-150.

Day, M.C. 1977. A new genus of Plumariidae from southern Africa, with notes on Scolebythidae (Hymenoptera: Chrysidoidea). Cimbebasia 4: 171-177.

Enderlein, G. 1918. Hymenoptera II: Archihymenidae. Beitr. Landf. Süd-Westafrik. 1: 193–199.

Engel, M. & Grimaldi, D.A. 2006. Cretaceous Scolebythidae and phylogeny of the family (Hymenoptera; Chrysidoidea). American Museum Novitates 3568: 16 pp.
Evans, H.E. 1963.
A new family of wasps. Psyche 70 (1): 7-16, pl. 2.

Evans, H.E. 1966. Discovery of the female Plumarius (Hymenoptera, Plumariidae). Psyche 73, 229–237.

Evans, H.E., Kugler, C. & Brown, W.L. Jr. 1979. Rediscovery of Scolebythus madecassus, with description of the male and of the female sting apparatus (Hymenoptera: Scolebythidae). Psyche 86 (1): 45-51.

Finnamore, A.T. & Brothers, D.J. 1993. Superfamily Chrysidoidea (pp. 130-160). In GOULET, H. & HUBER, J. (eds). Hymenoptera of the World: an identification guide to families. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, Ottawa, Canada, 668 pp.

Nagy, C.G. 1975. A new genus of Scolebythidae (Hymenoptera) from South Africa and Australia. J. Ent. Soc. S. Africa 38: 75-78.

Roig-Alsina, A. 1994. A new genus of Plumariidae, with notes on the relationships among the genera of the family. Mitteilungen der Münchener entomologisches Geselschaft, 84, 91–96.

Sharkey, M., 2007. Phylogeny and classification of Hymenoptera. Zootaxa 1668: 521–548.

Sharkey, M. J., Carpenter, J. M., Vilhelmsen, L., Heraty, J., Liljeblad, J., Dowling, A. P.G., Schulmeister, S., Murray, D., Deans, A. R., Ronquist, F., Krogmann, L. and Wheeler, W. C. 2012. Phylogenetic relationships among superfamilies of Hymenoptera. Cladistics 28: 80–112. doi: 10.1111/j.1096-0031.2011.00366.x

Sorg, M. 1988. Zur Phylogenie und Systematik der Bethylidae (Insecta: Hymenoptera, Chrysidoidea). Geologisches Instititut der Universität zu Köln Sonderveröffentlichungen 63: 146 pp.

Terayama, M. 2006. Bethylidae (Hymenoptera). In: Insects of Japan. 1-317pp. Edited by the Entomological Society of Japan. Fukuoka, Japan: Touka Shoboo Co. Ltd.


Photographs © Simon van Noort (Iziko Museums of South Africa). Dryinidae image © Vida van der Walt (Pretoria).

Web author Simon van Noort (Iziko South African Museum)


Citation: van Noort, S. 2019. WaspWeb: Hymenoptera of the Afrotropical region. URL: www.waspweb.org (accessed on <day/month/year>).

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