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Sclerodermine wasps of the Afrotropical Region

(Life: Kingdom: Metazoa (animals); Phylum: Arthropoda; Class: Hexapoda; Order: Hymenoptera; Superfamily: Chrysidoidea; Family: Bethylidae)

ClassificationIdentification keys

  Cephalonomia Westwood, 1833
Decemnoxus Vargas, Colombo & Azevedo, 2020
  Discleroderma Kieffer, 1904

Glenosema Kieffer, 1905

Longinoxus Vargas, Colombo & Azevedo, 2020
Madanoxus Vargas, Colombo & Azevedo, 2020
Megaprosternum Azevedo, 2006
Mutatio Vargas, Colombo & Azevedo, 2020
Pararhabdepyris Gorbatovsky, 1995
  Plastanoxus Kieffer, 1905
Platepyris Lanes & Azevedo, 2008

Prorops Waterston, 1923 

  Sclerodermus Latreille, 1809
Tuberepyris Lanes & Azevedo, 2008




Parasitoids of beetle larvae (Coleoptera) feeding in concealed situations.


Amante M, Schöller M, Suma P, Russo A. 2017. Bethylids attacking stored-product pests: an overview. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 163: 251–264. https://doi.org/10.1111/eea.12587

Azevedo, C.O. & Mugrabi, D.F. 2014.Three new species of Tuberepyris Lanes et Azevedo (Hymenoptera, Bethylidae), with amended diagnosis of the genus. Zootaxa 3794 (4): 556–564. http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3794.4.6

Azevedo CO. 2006. Two new genera of Sclerodermini (Hymenoptera, Bethylidae, Epyrinae) with large, scolebythid-like prosternums. Zootaxa, 1191:35–47.

Azevedo CO, Garcia R, Gobbi FT & van Noort S. 2015. Insecta, Hymenoptera, Bethylidae: range extension and filling gaps in Central African Republic. Check List 11: 1-4.

Azevedo CO & van Noort S. 2018. Flat wasp fauna from Cousine island, Seychelles, with description of a new species of Holepyris (Hymenoptera, Bethylidae). Atoll Research Bulletin 615: 1-12. http://opensi.si.edu/index.php/smithsonian/catalog/book/179

Azevedo CO, van Noort S. 2019. Review of Afrotropical Glenosema Kieffer (Hymenoptera, Bethylidae) with description of 13 new species. Zootaxa 4585 (3): 401–437. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4585.3.1

Azevedo CO, Alencar IDCCA, Ramos MS, Barbosa DN, Colombo WD, Vargas JMR, Lim J. 2018. Global guide of the flat wasps (Hymenoptera, Bethylidae). Zootaxa 4489:1–294. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4489.1.1

Barbosa DN, Kawada R & Azevedo CO. 2017. Order Hymenoptera, family Bethylidae Genus Glenosema Kieffer. Arthropod fauna of the UAE 6: 322–335.

Gordh, G. & L. Móczár, 1990. A catalog of the World Bethylidae (Hymenoptera: Aculeata). Mem. Amer. Ent. Inst. 46: 1-364.

Gupta, A., S. K. Rajeshwari and C. O. Azevedo. 2017. Biology and description of Megaprosternum cleonarovorum sp. nov. (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) a gregarious larval ectoparasitoid of Cleonaria bicolor Thomson (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) from India. Zootaxa, 4237:078–090. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4237.1.4.

Finnamore, A.T. & Brothers, D.J. 1993. Superfamily Chrysidoidea (pp. 130-160). In GOULET, H. & HUBER, J. (eds). Hymenoptera of the World: an identification guide to families. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, Ottawa, Canada, 668 pp.

Kieffer JJ 1921. Nouveaux Bethylides du Soudan Égyptien. Annales de la Société Scientifique de Bruxelles 40: 111-114.

Krombein, K. V. 1990. Systematic Notes on Some Bethylidae From Botswana: Epyrinae (Hymenoptera: Aculeata). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 92: 98-105.

Lanes, G.O. & Azevedo, C.O. 2008. Phylogeny and taxonomy of Sclerodermini (Hymenoptera, Bethylidae, Epyrinae). Insect Systematics and Evolution 39: 55–86. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/187631208788784165 

Mugrabi, D.F & Azevedo, C.O. 2010. Insecta, Hymenoptera, Bethylidae: range extension and filling gaps in Madagascar. Check List 6: 62–63.

van Noort S & Azevedo CO. 2019. Discovery of the male of the rare Afrotropical species Tuberepyris codex Azevedo & Mugrabi (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae). African Entomology 27(1): 43–48. https://doi.org/10.4001/003.027.0043

Vargas JM, Azevedo CO. 2016. Three new species of Pararhabdepyris Gorbatovsky (Hymenoptera, Bethylidae) from Central Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Zootaxa 4117(3): 429-39. doi: 10.11646/zootaxa.4117.3.10.

Vargas JM, Colombo WD, Azevedo CO. 2020. Revisited phylogeny of Scleroderminae (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) reveals a plastic evolutionary history. Arthropod Systematics & Phylogeny 78(2): 217-243. https://doi.org/10.26049/ASP78-2-2020-02


Photographs © Celso Azevedo & Daniele Mugrabi (Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitoria, Brazil) or © Dominique Zimmermann (Naturhistorisches Museum Wien) or © Simon van Noort (Iziko Museums of South Africa).

Web author Simon van Noort (Iziko South African Museum)


Citation: van Noort, S. 2022. WaspWeb: Hymenoptera of the Afrotropical region. URL: www.waspweb.org (accessed on <day/month/year>).

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