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Tetracneminae

Tetracnemine wasps of Africa and Madagascar

(Life: Kingdom: Metazoa (animals); Phylum: Arthropoda; Class: Hexapoda; Order: Hymenoptera; Superfamily: Chalcidoidea; Family: Encyrtidae)

Classification

Cryptanusia Girault,1917

Distribution

Worldwide.

Biology

Parasitoids or hyperparasitoids of insect and arachnid eggs and larvae.

References

Annecke, D.P.; Insley, H.P. 1971, Catalogue of Ethiopian Encyrtidae and Aphelinidae. Entomology Memoir of the Department of Agricultural Technical Services of the Republic of South Africa 23: 1-53.

Gibson A.P. 1993. Superfamilies Mymarommatoidea and Chalcidoidea (pp. 570-655). In GOULET, H. & HUBER, J. (eds). Hymenoptera of the World: an identification guide to families. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, Ottawa, Canada, 668 pp.

Noyes, J.S.; Prinsloo, G.L. 1998, A review of the Afrotropical and Malagasy taxa of Encyrtidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) described by J. Risbec (1949-1959). Annales de la Société Entomologique de France 34(1): 71-97.

Prinsloo, G.L. 1983, A parasitoid-host index of Afrotropical Encyrtidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea). Entomology Memoirs of the Department of Agriculture, Republic of South Africa 60: 1-35.

Prinsloo, G.L. 1997, Parasitoids. Encyrtidae. World Crop Pests 7B:78-85

Prinsloo, G.L. & D.P. Annecke. 1979. A key to the genera of Encyrtidae from the Ethiopian region, with descriptions of three new genera (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea). Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa 42: 349-382.

Credits

Photographs © Vida van der Walt (Pretoria).


Web author Simon van Noort (Iziko South African Museum)

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