Solitary or eusocial with most nesting in the
ground, some nest in wood. Mass-provision individual
cells with pollen and nectar, which are then sealed after a
single egg is laid on the provision.
Brothers D.J. 1999.
Phylogeny and evolution of wasps, ants and bees (Hymenoptera, Chrysidoidea,
Vespoidea and Apoidea) Zoologica Scripta 28: 233–250.
Eardley, C, Finnamore, A.T. & Michener, C.D. 1993. Superfamily Apoidea (pp.
279-357). In GOULET, H. & HUBER, J. (eds). Hymenoptera of the World:
an identification guide to families. Research Branch, Agriculture
Canada, Ottawa, Canada, 668 pp.
Michener, C.D. 2000. The Bees of the World. Johns Hopkins
University Press. 953 pp.